Chapter One Introduction

Anatomical Directional Terms

ANATOMICAL POSITION AND TERMS OF DIRECTION When studying the human body it is important to place the body in anatomical position. Anatomical position is described as the body facing you, feet placed together and flat on the floor. The head is held erect, arms straight by the side with palms facing forward. All references to the body are made as if the body is in this position so when you describe something as being above something else it is always with respect to the body being in anatomical...

Hormones Secreted By The Pituitary And Their Target Organs

The adenohypophysis produces and secretes many hormones that have diverse target areas. Growth hormone GH is released by the pituitary and causes growth and division of cells throughout the body. Prolactin is more specific in its function. Prolactin stimulates the mammary glands to become functional in milk production. Follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH are gonadotropins that cause the ovaries and testes to release hormones. Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH causes the...

Organs Of The Male Reproductive System

Label The Male Reproductive System

The testes are enclosed in the scrotal sac which is lined with a smooth muscle layer called the dartos muscle. This muscle contracts when the temperatures drop near the testes, causing them to withdraw closer to the body where it is warmer. Another muscle of the region is the cremaster muscle. It also contracts when it is cold but it is made of skeletal muscle. The epididymis sits on top of the testis like a small cap and is a place where sperm cells mature. The spermatic cord consists of the...

Overview Of The Nervous System

Oligodendrocyte

The body must react to the external environment and the internal environment and communicate information between regions of the body. This job is primarily the task of the nervous system. Proper response to the external environment is critical for thermal regulation, response to threats, taking advantage of opportunities such as food availability, and a host of other stimuli. Response to the internal environment is important for sensing muscle tension, digestive processes, maintenance of blood...

Midsagittal Brain To Label

Midsagittal Section Human Brain

When seen from an inferior view, many different features can be seen on the brain. The frontal lobe is anterior and the temporal lobe and cerebellum are visible as well. The cerebellum has small folds called folia. The medulla oblongata is attached to the spinal cord and the pons is anterior to the medulla oblongata. Anterior to the pons are the mammillary bodies which are responsible for the olfactory smell reflex. The pituitary gland is next to the mammillary bodies. Anterior to the pituitary...

Cervical Curvature Labeled

Atlas Bone Labeled

We are unique as animals because of our upright posture. The vertical position of the spine is reflected in the increase in size of the vertebra from superior to inferior. The vertebral column is divided into five major regions. There are 7 cervical vertebrae that occur in the neck while the 12 thoracic vertebrae have ribs attached to them. The 5 lumbar vertebrae are found in the lower back and the sacrum consists of 5 fused sacral vertebrae. The coccyx is the terminal portion of the vertebral...

Hepatic Portal Veins Trunk Veins

Veine Intercostal

Most of the blood of the body returns to the heart by capillaries flowing into venules and finally into veins before reaching the heart. In a portal system blood moves from one capillary system to another capillary system before reaching the heart. The hepatic portal system takes blood from the capillary beds of many of the abdominal organs and carries it to the liver where metabolic processing takes place. The hepatic portal vein receives blood from various veins including the splenic vein,...

Functional Areas Of The Cerebrum

Color Motor Cortex Sensory Cortex

The cerebrum can be described not only physically but also in terms of the functional areas. The functions of language are many and have different areas of specialization. The motor speech area Broca's area is typically on the left side of the frontal lobe and it involves the formation of words. Coordination of the tongue and other parts of the vocal apparatus occur here. Wernicke's area is located in the parieto-temporal region and is involved in the syntax of speech. Wernicke's area allows...

Section Of Uterus And Vagina

Mons Pubic Vagina

The oocyte is ovulated from the ovary and moves into the uterine tube. The uterine tube is fringed by small cylindrical structures called fimbriae. The uterus is a small, flask-shaped organ. The uterus has a domed fundus, a main body, a narrowed isthmus, and an inferior cervix. The uterosacral ligament attaches the uterus to the sacrum. Most of the uterine wall is made of the myometrium which is a thick layer of smooth muscle. The vagina is approximately ten centimeters in length and is lined...

Overview Of The Endocrine System

Label The Organs The Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a collection of glands and organs that secrete hormones. This system is grouped according to the function that the individual organs have. Some of these organs have two roles and are called mixed organs. They secrete hormones and also perform other functions such as digestion or secretion. The pancreas is a good example of this. It secretes hormones an endocrine function that regulate blood sugar levels and also secretes enzymes exocrine secretions that break down...

Larynx Trachea And Lungs Overview

Labelled Respiratory System Colouring

Two main cartilages of the larynx can be seen from an anterior view. The thyroid cartilage is superior to the cricoid cartilage. Below the larynx is the trachea which divides into the right and left primary bronchi. The right primary bronchus leads to the right lung and the left primary bronchus leads to the left lung. Label the parts of the respiratory system illustrated. Color the two visible cartilages of the larynx different colors and the trachea another color. Color the bronchi in first...

Coronal View Of The Nasal Conchae Amd Larynx

Middle Nasal Conchae

The nasal cavity is more than a hole behind the nose. Inhaled air swirls around the conchae and is warmed and moistened in the process. Label and color the septal cartilage in a coronal section of the nose. Label and color each of the conchae. The superior nasal concha, middle nasal concha, and the inferior nasal concha should each have a different color. The frontal and ethmoid sinuses can also be seen in this illustration. They give resonance to the voice. Note the location of the hard palate...

Chapter Twelve Urinary

Answer Key Kidney

The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra. The right kidney is a little more inferior than the left kidney due to the presence of the liver on the right side of the body. The kidneys are located near the twelfth vertebra and extend to the third lumbar vertebra. They receive blood from the renal artery. The kidneys are retroperitoneal, meaning that they are posterior to the parietal peritoneum. The ureters are also retroperitoneal and take urine to...

Chapter Fourteen Female Reproductive System

Label Female Reproductive System

OVERVIEW OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The female reproductive system consists of the two ovaries, the uterine tubes, a single uterus, vagina, and the vaginal orifice. The uterus is held to the anterior body by the round ligaments and held to the pelvic wall by the suspensory ligaments. Blood flows to the ovaries by the gonadal arteries. The breasts are integumentary structures and each one has mammary glands, the areola, and the nipple. Label the structures of the female reproductive...

Sphenoid Temporal Amd Ethmoid Bones

Cristae Galli Labeled

A few bones of the skull are frequently studied as separate bones. The sphenoid bone has a superficial resemblance to a bat or butterfly. There are the lesser wings, the greater wings, and the pterygoid plates, all of which resemble wings. The dorsum sellae is the posterior part of the sella turcica a depression that holds the pituitary gland . Locate the foramen rotundum and the foramen ovale on the sphenoid bone. These holes enclose parts of the trigeminal nerve. The temporal bone has a flat...

Coronal Section Of Heart

Image Pericardium And Endocardium

The heart is located in a tough, fibrous sac known as the parietal pericardium which has an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. If this sac is opened you can see a space called the pericardial cavity. The heart is in this cavity. The outer surface of the heart is called the visceral pericardium or the epicardium. Inside of this is the main portion of the heart wall called the myocardium made of cardiac muscle and the innermost layer of the heart is the endocardium. Deoxygenated blood...

Overview Of Cell And Cell Membrane

Plasma Membrane Ciliated Columnar

Cells consist of an enclosing plasma membrane, an inner cytoplasm with numerous organelles, and other cellular structures. The fluid portion of the cell is called the cytosol. Color the cytosol in last after you color the rest of the cellular structures. One of the major structures in the cell is the nucleus. It is the genetic center of the cell and consists of fluid karyoplasm, chromatin containing DNA , and the nucleolus. Color these features and label them on the illustration. The...

Frontal Lobe Sulci Gyri

Sulcus Gyrus Labeling

From the superior aspect, the two cerebral hemispheres are divided by the longitudinal fissure. The frontal lobes are separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus. The precentral gyrus primary motor cortex and the postcentral gyrus primary somatosensory cortex are on either side of the central sulcus. The gyri are the raised areas of the cerebral cortex and the sulci are the shallow depressions of the cerebral cortex. Together, these compose the convolutions of the brain. Label and...

Abdominalthoracic Arteries

Superior Mesenteric Artery Coloring

The aorta starts at the ascending aorta and curves via the aortic arch. The thoracic aorta is a portion of the descending aorta. It has several branches that take blood to most of the ribs and intercostal muscles. These are the posterior intercostal arteries. Below the diaphragm the descending aorta is known as the abdominal aorta and it has several branches. The first of these is the celiac trunk and it branches to take blood to the stomach, spleen and liver. The next branch is the superior...

Head And Aortic Arteries

Brachiocephalica

Blood from the heart exits the brachiocephalic artery and takes two main pathways to the right side of the head. One of these is the right common carotid artery which exits the brachiocephalic artery and then splits into the external carotid artery and the internal carotid artery. The external carotid artery has several branches, among them the facial artery, the superficial temporal artery, the maxillary artery, and the occipital artery. The internal carotid artery takes blood through the...

Anterior Surface View Of Heart

Label Aortic Arch And The Major Branches

The apex of the heart is inferior and the base is superior. Label each chamber of the heart and color them each a different color. Locate the coronary arteries and their branches and color them in red. The right coronary artery leads to the right marginal artery. The left coronary artery takes blood to the anterior interventricular branch and the circumflex branch. The cardiac veins can also be seen on the anterior side. The great cardiac vein runs in the interventricular sulcus on the anterior...

Overview Of The Cardiovascular System

Overview Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart as a pump, blood vessels that take blood away from the heart arteries , and blood vessels that take blood back to the heart veins . Locate the heart on the illustration and color it in purple. Label the common carotid artery and color it in red. Arteries are typically colored in red and veins are colored blue. Label and color in the internal jugular vein too. The internal jugular vein takes blood to the superior vena cava which takes blood to the...