Is Optic Nerve Linked To Brain Or Spinal Cord

Nasal bones, 43, 45, 253, 255 nasal cartilages, 253 nasal cavity, 157,159, 249, 255 nasal conchae, 51, 255, 257 nasal septum, 43, 253 nasolacrimal duct, 159 nasopharynx, 253 neck veins, 225 nephron loop loop of Henle , 293 nerve cell body soma , 37, 105 nerve fibers, sensory, 155 nerve s , 9, 273 abducens, 133 accessory, 133 axillary, 141 cervical, 137 coccygeal, 137 cochlear, 173 cranial, 133 facial, 133 femoral cutaneous, 143 fibular, 145 genitofemoral, 143 glossopharyngeal, 133...

Autonomic Nervous Systemsym Path Etic Division

ANS regulates automatic functions of the human body. Changes in heart rate, pupil dilation, digestive functions, and blood flow to the kidney are all controlled by the ANS. There is some possibility of conscious regulation of parts of the ANS, but, for the most part, it functions without conscious control. There are two divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The resting state of the body is controlled by the parasympathetic division. Digestion, kidney filtration, erection of the clitoris,...

Adrenal Glands

Zona Reticularis Cortex Medulla

The adrenal glands are positioned superior to the kidneys and are divided into the adrenal cortex and the medulla. The cortex has three layers. The most superficial layer is the zona glomerulosa, which is deep to the adrenal capsule and responsible for the secretion of mineralocorticoid hormones. The next layer is the zona fasciculata which mainly secretes glucocorticoids, hormones responsible for the breakdown of proteins and lipids and the synthesis of glucose. The zona reticularis is the...

Inner

Malleus Incus And Stapes

The inner ear consists of the cochlea, the vestibule, and the semicircular ducts. In Latin, the name cochlea means snail shell and it spirals like a snail. Its function is to translate the mechanical vibrations of sound into nerve impulses. The cochlea has an oval window that attaches to the stapes and a round window that allows for changes in pressure to occur in the inner ear. Label the cochlea and color it in. The vestibule has two parts, the utricle and the saccule. These are involved in...

Lymph Nodes

Lymph Node Color

Lymph nodes are found typically in clusters along the route that lymphatics take as lymph is returned to the cardiovascular system. Afferent lymphatics bring lymph to the node and efferent lymphatics Lymph nodes consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla. The cortex produces lymphocytes and the medulla has medullary cords that have clusters of lymph cells that cleanse the lymph passing through the nodes. Label the lymphatics and parts of the lymph node and color them in. Answer Key a....

Teeth

Pulp Cavity Maxillary Canine

The tooth has three general regions the crown, the neck, and the root. The crown is the part of the tooth that erupts from the gums into the oral cavity. The neck is normally at the level of the gingiva and the root is imbedded into the bone. The tooth fits into the alveolar socket of the maxilla or the mandible and is held there by the periodontal ligaments. The internal anatomy of the tooth reveals the hard enamel which is an extremely dense material that resists wear and abrasion. Deep to...

Parathyroid Glands

Inferior Constrictor

There are typically four glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland and these are known as the parathyroid glands. They secrete a hormone called parathormone which regulates calcium balance in the blood. Parathormone increases blood calcium levels by causing more absorption of calcium from the digestive tract, increased osteoclast activity in the bones, and reabsorption of calcium from the kidney. The principal or chief cells secrete parathyroid hormone. The oxyphilic cells are less common...

Liver

Liver Lobule Structure

The liver is the largest internal organ of the body. It is on the right side of the body and plays a major metabolic function in digestion and also in processing material from the blood. The liver has four lobes in humans and is held to the diaphragm by the falciform ligament. The right lobe is the largest of the lobes. The left lobe is also reasonably large. The quadrate lobe is anterior and is rectangular in shape when seen from the inferior view. The caudate lobe is a posterior lobe of the...

Index

Arterial circle circle of Willis , 211 articular cartilages, 89 articular disc, 95 articular facet, 55, 57 articular process, 57, 59 articulate artery, 215 articulations, 85-101 arytenoid cartilages, 259 astrocytes, 107 atlas, 55 atom, 5 auditory tube Eustachian tube , 167,169 autonomic nervous system, 103, 149, 151 axillary artery, 207, 213 axillary lymph nodes, 309 axillary nerve, 141 axillary vein, 223, 227 axis, 55 axon hillcock, 105 axons, 37,105,107 azygos veins, 231 basilar membrane, 173...

Hormones Secreted By The Pituitary And Their Target Organs

The adenohypophysis produces and secretes many hormones that have diverse target areas. Growth hormone GH is released by the pituitary and causes growth and division of cells throughout the body. Prolactin is more specific in its function. Prolactin stimulates the mammary glands to become functional in milk production. Follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH are gonadotropins that cause the ovaries and testes to release hormones. Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH causes the...

Small Intestine

Epiploic Appendix

The small intestine receives the contents of the stomach, continues the process of digestion and absorbs nutrients. The first part of the small intestine is the duodenum, a short tube of about twelve inches in length, that receives material from the stomach, enzymes and buffers from the pancreas, and bile from the gall bladder. The duodenum has circular folds in the wall that increase the surface area. The jejunum is the next section of the small intestine and it makes up about forty percent of...

Cross Section Of Cochlea

Hair Cells Your Hair

Look at the cross section of cochlea. Each coil of the cochlea has three chambers and three membranes. The upper chamber in the illustration is the scala vestibuli. It is connected to the oval window. The vestibular membrane is the tissue that forms the bottom of the scala vestibuli. Below this is the scala media that houses the spiral organ or the organ of Corti . The bottom chamber is the scala tympani. Between the scala tympani and the scala media is the basilar membrane. Label these...

Specific Synovial Joints

Specific Synovial Joints

Synovial joints are classified by what kind of motion they have. Gliding joints move in one plane like two sheets of glass sliding across one another. Hinge joints have angular movement like a door hinge. Rotating pivot joints move like a wheel of a car around an axle. Condyloid ellipsoidal joints move like hinges in two directions. In these joints there is a convex surface and a concave surface. Saddle joints have two concave surfaces. They allow for greater movement than condyloid joints....

Vessels Overview

Vessels Overview

The blood vessels have different thickness due to the differences in pressure that occur in them or their function with respect to exchanging nutrients with the cells. Arteries have thick walls due to the higher pressure found in them. Just as high pressure hoses have thick walls so do arteries. The outer layer of the artery is the tunica externa tunica adventitia . You should locate the tunica externa and color it in. The middle layer of the artery, the tunica media is the thickest layer and...

Chapter Twelve Urinary

Answer Key Kidney

The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra. The right kidney is a little more inferior than the left kidney due to the presence of the liver on the right side of the body. The kidneys are located near the twelfth vertebra and extend to the third lumbar vertebra. They receive blood from the renal artery. The kidneys are retroperitoneal, meaning that they are posterior to the parietal peritoneum. The ureters are also retroperitoneal and take urine to...

Thyroid Gland

Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is just inferior to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. It has two main lobes and a small connection between them called the isthmus. The histology of the thyroid is very distinctive. There are cells called follicular cells forming a sphere and these make up the follicle. Inside the follicle is the colloid where thyroid hormones are stored. The parafollicular cells are between the follicles. Label the main parts of the thyroid gland, the follicular cells, the parafollicular...

Medical

Muscular tissue is composed of specialized cells involved in contraction. Skeletal muscle makes up body muscles and represents around 40 percent of the body mass. Skeletal muscle is striated and the fusion of individual cells produces longer, mature cells that are multinucleate. These nuclei are found on the edges of the cells. Skeletal muscle can be consciously controlled and is called voluntary muscle. Label and color the striations of the skeletal muscle cells, the nuclei, and individual...

Labyrinths Of The Inner

Membranous Labyrinth Structures

The outer part of the inner ear consists of the bony labyrinth, an outer encasement of bone. Inside of this is a fluid called perilymph. Inside of this is the membranous labyrinth. It is filled with a fluid called endolymph. Label these structures and fluids. Cross Section of a Semicircular Canal Look at the cross section of a semicircular duct. The outer part of the canal is the bony labyrinth. Perilymph is the fluid between the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth. Inside the...

Overview Of

Answer Key Middle Ear Inner Ear

The ear consists of three major regions, the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear consists mainly of two parts, the auricle pinna , including the ear lobe and the external auditory canal. The middle ear begins at the tympanic membrane ear drum . Inside the tympanic membrane is the tympanic cavity, another part of the middle ear. Here you should label the ear ossicles and the auditory tube Eustachian tube . The inner ear consists of three major regions, the cochlea, the...

Plexuses And Thoracic Nerves

Sacral Plexus And Spinal Cord

There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves grouped by region of the vertebral column. The cervical nerves are the most superior and there are eight pairs of them. The first cervical nerves arise superior to the first cervical vertebra. The thoracic nerves arise as twelve pairs. They lead to nerves that innervate the muscles between the ribs and associated skin. There are five pairs of lumbar nerves and five pairs of sacral nerves. The last pair of spinal nerves is the coccygeal nerves. A plexus is a...

Turns The Eye Inferiorly

Eyelid Levator Muscle

The lateral and superior views of the eye show the major muscles controlling the eye. The lateral rectus is the muscle that lets you see towards the side. The medial rectus turns the eye toward the midline. The superior rectus makes you look up while the inferior rectus makes you look down. The superior oblique turns the eye inferiorly and laterally while the inferior oblique makes the eye turn superiorly and laterally. The levator palpebrae superioris elevates the eyelid. Label and color the...

Organs Of The Head

Hypothalamus Label

The pineal gland is a small gland located posterior to the corpus callosum in the brain. It has the shape of a pine nut but is a little bit smaller. It secretes the hormone melatonin melatonin levels increase during the night and decrease during the day. is suspended from the brain by a stalk called the infundibulum. The pituitary sits in the hypophyseal fossa which is a depression in the sphenoid bone. The pituitary is a complicated gland that has numerous functions. The adenohypophysis or...

Tongue

Vallate Papillae

The tongue is the region where taste is perceived. The tongue has regions that are sensitive to different tastes and these vary from person to person. Not only do people taste material in different places on the tongue, but the sensitivity to taste is different in individuals. Taste buds are located on the sides of papillae of the tongue. The lingual tonsils are found on the posterior tongue and the palatine tonsils are on the sides of the oral cavity. Posterior and inferior to the tongue is...

Organs Of The Male Reproductive System

Label The Male Reproductive System

The testes are enclosed in the scrotal sac which is lined with a smooth muscle layer called the dartos muscle. This muscle contracts when the temperatures drop near the testes, causing them to withdraw closer to the body where it is warmer. Another muscle of the region is the cremaster muscle. It also contracts when it is cold but it is made of skeletal muscle. The epididymis sits on top of the testis like a small cap and is a place where sperm cells mature. The spermatic cord consists of the...

Overview Of The Cardiovascular System

Overview Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart as a pump, blood vessels that take blood away from the heart arteries , and blood vessels that take blood back to the heart veins . Locate the heart on the illustration and color it in purple. Label the common carotid artery and color it in red. Arteries are typically colored in red and veins are colored blue. Label and color in the internal jugular vein too. The internal jugular vein takes blood to the superior vena cava which takes blood to the...

Artery Overview

Abdominal Aortic Trunk

One of the ways to study arteries is to draw them as if you were making a street map. Begin with the heart and draw the blood vessels that occur as you take blood to the fingers, toes or to a particular organ of the body. Arteries are typically colored red and you should select that color for this illustration. Use the following artery list and label the appropriate arteries and color them in red. The abbreviation for artery is a. Ascending aorta Aortic arch Thoracic aorta Abdominal aorta...

Modified Synovial Structuresbursae And Tendon Sheaths

Layers Synovial Membrane

There are structures in the body that consist of synovial membranes and fibrous capsules. These are not synovial joints but are associated with joints. A bursa is one such structure. It is a fluid-filled sac with an internal synovial membrane that cushions tendons as they pass over bones. The bursa occurs between the tendon and the bone. Another structure is a tendon sheath. It also is composed of a synovial membrane and fibrous sheath and it encloses tendons. The sheaths can provide...

Urinary Bladder

Answer Key Nephron

The urinary bladder is a storage organ for holding urine. The ureters enter the bladder at the ureteral orifices and the urethra exits the bladder inferiorly. These three openings make a triangular region known as the trigone at the posterior wall of the bladder. The urethra is the external tube that takes urine voided from the urinary bladder to outside the body. The urethra in the female is much shorter than in the male, which makes females more susceptible to bladder infections. The wall of...

Superior Aspect Of The Heart

Bicuspid Valve Left Ventricle

This view of the heart is seen as if the atria and the major vessels have been removed. You should be able to see all of the major valves of the heart. The most anterior valve is the pulmonary semilunar valve that occurs between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk. Label and color this valve blue. Posterior to this is the aortic semilunar valve. It occurs between the left ventricle and the aorta. Label this valve and color it in red. Both of these valves prevent blood from returning to...

Spinal Cord

Cervical Enlargement Spinal Cord

The spinal cord is attached to the brain at the foramen magnum. It expands just below this junction as the cervical enlargement. This enlargement is due to the increased neural connections with the upper extremities. Another increase in the diameter of the cord is the lumbar enlargement and it is due to the neural connections with the lower extremities. The end of the cord is the conus medullaris and this is found at the region of the first or second lumbar vertebra. The shortness of the spinal...

Parasym Pathetic Division

Answer Key Spinal Cord

The parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions are antagonistic to one another and organs under the influence of the ANS have dual innervation. Typically, one division either inhibits the organ from functioning or causes an increase in activity in the organ. This occurs due to the difference in neurotransmitters secreted by the separate divisions. At the terminal end of the parasympathetic division, the neurotransmitter is acetylcholine. At the terminal end of the sympathetic division, the...

Upper Limb Veins

Upper Limb Arterial

The veins of the upper limb are somewhat variable and have many cross connections between them but they can be divided into the deep veins and the superficial veins. The deep veins of the upper limb frequently form a meshwork around the arteries venae comitantes which allows for a great amount of heat transfer. Cool blood from the extremities is warmed by the arterial blood flowing in a counter current. Blood in the fingers returns to the forearm by the digital veins and then the superficial...

Pancreas

Pancreas Color

The pancreas is inferior to the stomach and has several digestive functions. These exocrine secretions are initiated by the acinar cells. The endocrine function of the pancreas consists of the secretion of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin from the pancreatic islets. These islets are microscopic collections of cells that have specialized cells for the secretion of hormones. Insulin lowers blood glucose levels while glucagon does the reverse. Somatostatin moderates some of the pancreatic cells...

Tem Poroman Dl Bu Lar Joint

Gliding Joint Spine

Some joints of the body warrant special attention. The temporomandibular joint or jaw joint is both a gliding joint and a hinge joint. The condyle of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. An articular disc is found in the joint that decreases the stress on the joint. Ligaments dense connective tissue that joins bone to bone connect the mandible to the temporal bone. b. Coronoid process, c. Condyloid j process cut , d. Angle of mandible, 1 J e. Mandibl,. f....

Lateral Wall Of Nasal Cavity And Respiratory Epithelium

Position Goblet Cells Nose

When looking at the nasal cavity, if the septal cartilage is removed you can see the nasal conchae. These structures force the inhaled air to come into contact with the wall of the nasal cavity where the air is warmed and moistened. There are three nasal conchae, the superior nasal concha, the middle nasal concha, and the inferior nasal concha. Note the position of the conchae with the nasal bone, the hard palate and the soft palate. Label the nasal cavity and the structures that are associated...

Nerves Of Lumbar Plexus

Psoas Genitofemoral Nerve

The lumbar plexus leads to nerves on the anterior and the medial aspect of the thigh. A large femoral nerve arises from the lumbar plexus and innervates the four muscles of the quadriceps femoris group on the anterior thigh. The obturator nerve innervates the adductor muscles of the medial thigh and the genitofemoral nerve is a sensory nerve that receives impulses from the male scrotal sac and the labia majora in females. The iliohypogastric nerve innervates the muscles of the abdomen and the...

Overview Of The Digestive System

Answer Key Digestive System

The digestive system is composed of a long tube called the alimentary canal and the accessory organs including the liver, pancreas, and gall bladder. The alimentary canal starts at the mouth, includes the esophagus, stomach, intestines, and rectum and terminates at the anus. It can be defined as the tube through which ingested products move. The accessory organs have digestive functions but they do not come into contact with material passing through the digestive tract. The alimentary canal...

Gonads

Spinal Cord Thoracic Microscopic View

The ovaries are a mixed gland because they produce the oocytes egg cells and also have an endocrine function by producing estrogens. Estrogens are a class of female sex hormones that include estradiol and progesterone. Estradiol is produced in the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles. These follicles surround the oocytes. Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum after the oocyte has been ovulated. The testes are also mixed glands. As exocrine glands they produce sperm cells and as...

Head And Aortic Arteries

Brachiocephalica

Blood from the heart exits the brachiocephalic artery and takes two main pathways to the right side of the head. One of these is the right common carotid artery which exits the brachiocephalic artery and then splits into the external carotid artery and the internal carotid artery. The external carotid artery has several branches, among them the facial artery, the superficial temporal artery, the maxillary artery, and the occipital artery. The internal carotid artery takes blood through the...

Larynx Trachea And Lungs Overview

Labelled Respiratory System Colouring

Two main cartilages of the larynx can be seen from an anterior view. The thyroid cartilage is superior to the cricoid cartilage. Below the larynx is the trachea which divides into the right and left primary bronchi. The right primary bronchus leads to the right lung and the left primary bronchus leads to the left lung. Label the parts of the respiratory system illustrated. Color the two visible cartilages of the larynx different colors and the trachea another color. Color the bronchi in first...

Circulation

Answer Key Blood Circulation

The heart has four chambers including the superior atria and the inferior ventricles. There is a typical coloring pattern for the cardiovascular system. Vessels or chambers that carry deoxygenated blood are colored in blue while vessels that carry oxygenated blood are colored red. Label and color the right atrium blue , right ventricle blue , left atrium red and left ventricle red . Remember the heart is in anatomical position so the right atrium is on the left in the illustration. There are...

Human Body Diagram

Human Body Major Muscle Groups

Muscles can be grouped into anatomical regions such as muscles of the head, arm or torso. Muscles can also be functionally related, for example, muscles that act on the thigh or muscles that flex the hand. The origin of the muscle is the stable part of the muscle. The majority of muscles have origins that are superior, proximal, or medial to the insertion. There are only a few exceptions to this rule. The insertion of the muscle is the part of the muscle that has the greatest motion when the...

Frontal Lobe Sulci Gyri

Sulcus Gyrus Labeling

From the superior aspect, the two cerebral hemispheres are divided by the longitudinal fissure. The frontal lobes are separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus. The precentral gyrus primary motor cortex and the postcentral gyrus primary somatosensory cortex are on either side of the central sulcus. The gyri are the raised areas of the cerebral cortex and the sulci are the shallow depressions of the cerebral cortex. Together, these compose the convolutions of the brain. Label and...

Crista Galli Skull

Ethmoid Bone

Several features of the skull can be seen when it is sectioned in the midsagittal plane. Locate the major bones of the skull and the features seen in this section. The nasal septum consists of two bony structures, the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the vomer. The crista galli extends superiorly from the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. The junction of the maxilla and the palatine bone that make up the hard palate can be seen from this view as well. The frontal sinus and the...

Upper Limb Arteries

Upper Limb Arteries Without Label

The arteries of the upper limb receive blood from the subclavian artery which takes blood to the axillary artery. Blood in the axillary artery travels to the anterior scapula by the subscapular artery, to the external chest wall by the lateral thoracic artery, to the upper humeral region by the posterior circumflex humeral artery, and to the distal regions of the arm by the brachial artery. The brachial artery is the major artery of the arm and it divides distally to form the radial and ulnar...

Functional Areas Of The Cerebrum

Color Motor Cortex Sensory Cortex

The cerebrum can be described not only physically but also in terms of the functional areas. The functions of language are many and have different areas of specialization. The motor speech area Broca's area is typically on the left side of the frontal lobe and it involves the formation of words. Coordination of the tongue and other parts of the vocal apparatus occur here. Wernicke's area is located in the parieto-temporal region and is involved in the syntax of speech. Wernicke's area allows...

Overview Of The Endocrine System

Label The Organs The Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a collection of glands and organs that secrete hormones. This system is grouped according to the function that the individual organs have. Some of these organs have two roles and are called mixed organs. They secrete hormones and also perform other functions such as digestion or secretion. The pancreas is a good example of this. It secretes hormones an endocrine function that regulate blood sugar levels and also secretes enzymes exocrine secretions that break down...

Pancreas Gall Bladder

Pankreas Water Ampulla

The pancreas is a complex organ that has both a digestive function and an endocrine function. The digestive function of the pancreas consists of producing enzymes for the digestion of materials in the small intestine and the secretion of buffers to increase the pH of the fluid secreted from the stomach. The pancreas has a head, next to the duodenum, a main body and a tail near the spleen. The enzymes and buffers secreted into the small intestine flow into the pancreatic duct before entering the...

Cervical Curvature Labeled

Spinal Nervous System Without Labels

We are unique as animals because of our upright posture. The vertical position of the spine is reflected in the increase in size of the vertebra from superior to inferior. The vertebral column is divided into five major regions. There are 7 cervical vertebrae that occur in the neck while the 12 thoracic vertebrae have ribs attached to them. The 5 lumbar vertebrae are found in the lower back and the sacrum consists of 5 fused sacral vertebrae. The coccyx is the terminal portion of the vertebral...

Nerves Of Brachial Plexus

Nerves And

The brachial plexus is associated with spinal nerves C4-8 and T1. It leads to major nerves of the shoulder and arm. The axillary nerve arises from the brachial plexus and innervates the deltoid and the teres minor muscles. It also receives stimulation from the skin of the shoulder and lateral upper limb. The radial nerve innervates the triceps brachii muscle and the extensors of the forearm and hand. The musculocutaneous nerve innervates the anterior muscles of the arm biceps brachii,...

Headneck Veins

Internal And External Jugular Vein

The drainage of the head occurs by the jugular veins or the vertebral veins. Some of the blood coming from the brain travels down the superior sagittal sinus and through the large internal jugular veins. These veins take blood down both sides of the neck and enter the brachiocephalic veins. The external portion of the head is drained by several veins. The facial vein and the maxillary vein take blood to the internal jugular vein while the superficial temporal vein and the posterior auricular...

Fibrous Joints

Semimovable Joint

Fibrous joints are held together by collagenous fibers, the same fibers that make up tendons and ligaments. These joints do not have a joint cavity. Sutures are immovable fibrous joints of the skull. Color in the suture illustrated on the page. A gomphosis is a fibrous joint in which a round peg is held into a socket. Gomphoses are represented by the teeth held into the maxilla or the mandible. Another fibrous joint is the syndesmosis. This joint is found between the distal radius and ulna or...

Posterior View Of The

Posterior View The Eye

In the posterior view of the eye you can see the blood vessels in the choroid that bring nutrients to the back of the eye. Color these vessels. They enter the eye at a region known as the optic disk, which is the same place where the optic nerve exits the eye. This is the blind spot of the eye. You should also label and color the fovea centralis of the eye and the macula lutea. The macula lutea means yellow body while the fovea centralis is the region of the eye with a great number of...

Fetal Stage

Chorionic Cavity

At the eighth week after fertilization the organs are formed and the embryo has now become a fetus. Prior to the fetal stage the outer wall of the embryo develops into a membrane called the chorion and some of this membrane is joined with the maternal vasculature and forming the placenta. Between the chorion and the embryo is the chorionic cavity. This cavity disappears by the eighth week. A membrane called the amnion folds around the embryo forming the amniotic cavity and this cavity is filled...

Human Spine Is Aloceolus

Alveoli Artery

The lungs are like large sponges filled with microscopic spaces. Air travels to these spaces by the bronchial tree. The trachea splits at the level of the lungs into two primary bronchi. Each lung has a primary bronchus that divides to secondary bronchi. These divide further to tertiary bronchi which divide into smaller branches. Finally bronchi become bronchioles and these lead to smaller sacs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs between the lungs and blood. Shade the major...

Overview Of The Lymph System

Label The Lymphatic System

The lymph system is composed of lymphatics or lymph vessels and glands and is a system with many functions. Fluid that bathes the cells interstitial fluid is returned to the cardiovascular system, in part, by the lymph system. This fluid, called lymph, passes through lymph nodes where impurities and foreign microbes are removed. Other parts of the lymph system include lymph organs such as the spleen. These organs produce cells that protect the body from foreign compounds, and have other immune...

Skin Receptors

Skin Pain Receptors

There are several sense receptors in the skin. Some of these are involved in determining mechanical vibration, some sense temperature, and some sense pain. The receptors for mechanical vibration pick up light touch or are involved in perception of pressure. There are hair receptors that wrap around the hair follicles, and as the hair moves it stimulates the neurons. Light touch is perceived by both Meissner's corpuscles and Merkel's disks. These receptors are found in the superficial layers of...

Larynx And Trachea

Larynx Label

The larynx is the voice box and it not only produces sound for speech but also separates the flow of air to the lungs from the flow of foods and liquids that go down the esophagus. The thyroid cartilage is the largest cartilage of the larynx and it is easily seen from the anterior aspect. The thyroid cartilage is inferior to the hyoid bone. Behind the thyroid cartilage is the epiglottis which is the only laryngeal structure made of elastic cartilage. Inferior to the thyroid cartilage is the...

Structure Of Holocrine Gland

Elastic Fiber Structure

Endocrine gland, c. Goblet cell, d. Merocrine glands, e. Vesicles, f. Apocrine glands, g. Holocrine glands Connective tissue is a varied group of associated tissues, all of which are derived from an embryonic tissue known as mesenchyme. Connective tissue not only has cells, as do all of the other tissues, but it also has fibers and a large amount of background substance called matrix. There are many specific tissues that belong to connective tissue. Loose...

Fetal Circulation

Vena Cava Placenta

The significant difference in fetal circulation from adult circulation lies in the fact that the lungs are non-functional in the fetus. The source of oxygen for the fetus is the placenta where maternal blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. Blood from the placenta travels to the fetus by the umbilical vein. It is called a vein because it carries blood to the fetal heart. The blood flowing in the umbilical vein is oxygenated blood which is not typical of most blood that occurs in...

Chapter Fifteen Development 311

Preembryonic Development

The process of development begins with the union of the sperm and oocyte. After ovulation, the secondary oocyte moves down the uterine tube and, if fertilization occurs by sperm, it usually happens in the uterine tube. Once fertilization occurs, the oocyte and the sperm unite to become a zygote. The zygote divides during this preembryonic stage and forms a two-celled stage. These cells go through numerous divisions and are called blastomeres. The two blastomeres divide and become four cells and...

Coronal View Of The Nasal Conchae Amd Larynx

Middle Nasal Conchae

The nasal cavity is more than a hole behind the nose. Inhaled air swirls around the conchae and is warmed and moistened in the process. Label and color the septal cartilage in a coronal section of the nose. Label and color each of the conchae. The superior nasal concha, middle nasal concha, and the inferior nasal concha should each have a different color. The frontal and ethmoid sinuses can also be seen in this illustration. They give resonance to the voice. Note the location of the hard palate...

Cranial Nerves

Answer Key Cranial Nerve

The cranial nerves are those nerves that attach to the brain. They are paired and are numbered typically by Roman numerals from anterior to posterior. The olfactory nerve is a sensory nerve that receives the sense of smell from the nose and transmits it to the brain. The optic nerve takes visual impulses from the eye while the oculomotor nerve mostly takes motor impulses to several muscles that move the eye. The trochlear nerve takes motor impulses to the superior oblique muscle. The trochlear...

Male And Female Pelvic Arteries

Female Pelvic Artery Anatomy

The common iliac artery takes blood to the external iliac artery and the internal iliac artery that takes blood to the pelvis. In females, branches of the internal iliac artery take blood to the inner pelvis. The vesical arteries takes blood to the bladder, the uterine arteries take blood to the uterus, the vaginal arteries feed the vagina, the rectal arteries feed the rectum, and the sacral arteries go to the sacrum. The pudendal artery takes blood to the external regions where it supplies...

Brain Arteries

Brain Arteries

The brain is nourished by two main arterial conduits. The first of these is the flow from the internal carotid arteries. Blood from the internal carotid arteries comes from the neck and enters a circular pathway known as the arterial circle circle of Willis . The other conduit comes from the vertebra and these are the vertebral arteries. These arteries connect at a vessel called the basilar artery and it leads to the arterial circle. The arterial circle consists of the anterior communicating...

Scapula Labeling

Anatomy Labeled Subscapular Fossa

The pectoral girdle consists of the scapulae and the clavicles. Each scapula is a triangular bone and the three edges are known as the superior border, the lateral border, and the medial border. The scapular spine is on the posterior surface and it expands into a terminal process known as the acromion process. Above the spine is the supraspinous fossa. Below the spine is the infraspinous fossa and on the anterior side of the scapula is the subscapular fossa and the coracoid process. The...

Label Frontal Lobe

Brain Areas Label

The most obvious features of a lateral view of the brain are the lobes of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The most anterior lobe is the frontal lobe, which is responsible for intellect and abstract reasoning, among other things. The division between the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe is the central sulcus. Just anterior to the central sulcus is the precentral gyrus, an area that sends motor impulses to muscles of the body. Just posterior to the central sulcus is the postcentral gyrus. The...

Sphenoid Temporal Amd Ethmoid Bones

Sphenoid Wing

A few bones of the skull are frequently studied as separate bones. The sphenoid bone has a superficial resemblance to a bat or butterfly. There are the lesser wings, the greater wings, and the pterygoid plates, all of which resemble wings. The dorsum sellae is the posterior part of the sella turcica a depression that holds the pituitary gland . Locate the foramen rotundum and the foramen ovale on the sphenoid bone. These holes enclose parts of the trigeminal nerve. The temporal bone has a flat...

Chapter Thirteen Male Reproductive System 295

Label The Reproductive System

OVERVIEW OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The male reproductive system consists of the two testes, the epididymis, the ductus deferens enclosed in the spermatic cord, the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, the bulbourethral glands, and the penis. The testes are the glands that produce testosterone and sperm cells. Sperm cells travel from the testes to the epididymis where they are stored and mature. From the epididymis sperm cells move into the ductus deferens, which enters the body and...

Chapter Fourteen Female Reproductive System

Label Female Reproductive System

OVERVIEW OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The female reproductive system consists of the two ovaries, the uterine tubes, a single uterus, vagina, and the vaginal orifice. The uterus is held to the anterior body by the round ligaments and held to the pelvic wall by the suspensory ligaments. Blood flows to the ovaries by the gonadal arteries. The breasts are integumentary structures and each one has mammary glands, the areola, and the nipple. Label the structures of the female reproductive...

Nerves Of Cervical Plexus

Pancreatic Ansa Loop

The cervical plexus is a complex interweaving of branches from the first five pairs of cervical nerves. The hypoglossal nerve enters this plexus from the head. The ansa cervicalis is an arched structure ansa is Latin for loop that has many nerves innervating the anterior throat muscles. The major nerves of the cervical plexus are the two phrenic nerves that descend to the diaphragm and stimulate the diaphragm to contract. Label the major features of the cervical plexus and color the hypoglossal...

Section Of Uterus And Vagina

Hymenal Orface

The oocyte is ovulated from the ovary and moves into the uterine tube. The uterine tube is fringed by small cylindrical structures called fimbriae. The uterus is a small, flask-shaped organ. The uterus has a domed fundus, a main body, a narrowed isthmus, and an inferior cervix. The uterosacral ligament attaches the uterus to the sacrum. Most of the uterine wall is made of the myometrium which is a thick layer of smooth muscle. The vagina is approximately ten centimeters in length and is lined...

Abdominalthoracic Arteries

Superior Mesenteric Artery Coloring

The aorta starts at the ascending aorta and curves via the aortic arch. The thoracic aorta is a portion of the descending aorta. It has several branches that take blood to most of the ribs and intercostal muscles. These are the posterior intercostal arteries. Below the diaphragm the descending aorta is known as the abdominal aorta and it has several branches. The first of these is the celiac trunk and it branches to take blood to the stomach, spleen and liver. The next branch is the superior...

Return Drainage

Veins The Neck And Thorax

One of the functions of the lymph system is to return tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system. The right lymphatic duct returns blood to the right internal jugular vein. This occurs at the junction where the right subclavian vein and the right internal jugular vein reach the right brachiocephalic vein. The thoracic duct enters the cardiovascular system at the point where the left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein enter the left brachiocephalic vein. Lymph nodes occur along...

Cervical Thoracic And Lumbar Vertebrae

Canine Thoracic Vertebrae

The opening where the spinal cord passes through the vertebra is known as the vertebral foramen. The body of the vertebra is the weight-bearing part of the vertebra and the spinous process is the part that extends posteriorly. This process is an extension from the vertebral arch that curves from the body enclosing the vertebral foramen. This arch is composed of the two pedicles and the two laminae. The superior articular process and the superior articular facet the flat surface on the process...

Arteries Of Digestive System

Ileocolic Artery

The celiac trunk splits into three branches, the common hepatic artery, the left gastric artery and the splenic artery. There are other branches to the stomach which have collateral circulation two or more arteries taking blood to one area . One of these is the right gastroepiploic artery and another is the left gastroepiploic artery. Below the celiac trunk is the superior mesenteric artery which takes blood to the small intestine and to several of the colic arteries that supply blood to the...

Dermatomes

Spinal Cord Sensation

Dermatomes are regions of the skin innervated by nerves. The nerves receive sensory inputs from the skin and take that information back to the spinal cord. The clinical importance of dermatomes is the role they play in assessing spinal cord damage. If there is a significant spinal cord injury, then the regions below the level of the injury may not transmit sensory signals to the brain. Lack of sensation in specific areas of the skin provides a base of understanding of where the trauma may be...

Spinal Cord And Spinal Nerves

Central Canal And Dura Layer

When seen in cross section, the spinal cord is composed of an internal arrangement of gray matter resembling a butterfly and an external white matter. The two thin strips of gray matter are the posterior gray horns and the more rounded sections are the anterior gray horns. The lateral gray horns are found in the thoracic and lumbar regions. The hole in the middle of the spinal cord is the central canal and the gray matter that surrounds the central canal is the gray commissure. The spinal cord...

Cerebrospinal Fluid Pathway

Answer Key Brain

Both the brain and spinal cord have layers that cover the nervous tissue. These are known as the meninges. The cerebrospinal fluid CSF is produced in the choroid plexuses and then exits to the outside of the brain where it is absorbed in the venous sinus. Label and color the structures and trace the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the schematic from its source to its reabsorption in the cardiovascular system. Answer Key a. Cerebrospinal fluid, b. Choroid plexus, c. Venous sinus, d....

Coronal Section Of Heart

Image Pericardium And Endocardium

The heart is located in a tough, fibrous sac known as the parietal pericardium which has an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. If this sac is opened you can see a space called the pericardial cavity. The heart is in this cavity. The outer surface of the heart is called the visceral pericardium or the epicardium. Inside of this is the main portion of the heart wall called the myocardium made of cardiac muscle and the innermost layer of the heart is the endocardium. Deoxygenated blood...

Male And Female Pelvis

Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine

Differences can be seen between the male and female pelvis. The subpubic angle in males is less than 90 degrees and the female angle is greater than 90 degrees. The ilium in males is more vertical than in a pelvis of a woman who has had children. A further distinction is seen in the side view of a pelvis in which the sciatic notch in the female pelvis has a much wider angle than in males. Color in the upper portion of the ilium. Answer Key a. Iliac crest, b. Posterior superior iliac spine, c....

Parts Of The Brain To Label

Olfactory Bulb Gyrus Frontal

The limbic system is deep in the cerebrum and performs numerous functions. The system has an important role in memory and in emotions both positive and negative . The sense of smell enters the limbic system and has interpretive centers there. The cingulate gyrus is a curved part of the system and coordinates sensory input with emotions. The hippocampus and amygdala are also parts of the limbic system. The amygdala plays a role in both arousal and aversion and the hippocampus is involved in...

Spleen

Splenic Sinuses And Vein

The spleen is on the left side of the body and is close to the pancreas. The splenic artery takes blood to the spleen and the splenic vein takes blood from the spleen. The spleen is important in removing aging red blood cells from circulation and recycling them. The spleen has both red pulp and white pulp. The red pulp is involved in red blood cell removal and the white pulp produces lymphocytes. The spleen has splenic cords that have lymphocytes along their length. Label the parts of the...

Ilium Ischium Pubis Labeling

Anterior Portion The Acetabulum

When seen from a lateral view, several features are apparent in the os coxa. Locate the posterior superior iliac spine and the posterior inferior iliac spine along with the greater sciatic notch, the spine of the ischium, and the lesser sciatic notch. The ischial tuberosity is at the posterior, inferior edge of the ischium. Just anterior to the tuberosity is a strip of bone called the ischial ramus that attaches to the inferior pubic ramus. The body of the pubis is the most anterior part of the...

Skulltop And Bottom Views

Lambdoid Suture

The superior aspect of the skull consists of few bones and few sutures. The frontal bone is the most anterior bone with the parietal bones directly posterior to it. The coronal suture separates the two and the sagittal suture separates the parietal bones. The lambdoid suture separates the parietal bone from the occipital bone. Label the bones and sutures and color the bones in the illustrations. The inferior aspect of the skull is more complex than the superior view. In the inferior view the...

Anterior Surface Of The Eye And Lacrimal Apparatus

Lateral Commissure

The eye is located in the orbit of the skull and has several external features. Above the eye is the eyebrow. The corners of the eye have either a lateral commissure or a medial commissure. Next to the medial commissure is the caruncle, a small thickened tissue in the medial corner of the eye. The outer surface of the eye is protected by the upper and lower eyelids. The blink reflex rapidly closes the eyelids to keep dust from hitting the outer surface of the eye. Label and color the sclera the...

Salivary Glands

Mandibular Saliva Glands

The three pair of salivary glands secrete saliva inside the oral cavity. The largest pair consists of the parotid glands and they are located just anterior to the ears. The parotid duct leads from the gland to posterior to the upper second molar. The submandibular glands are located inferior to the mandible and they take secretions to either side of the lingual frenulum. The sublingual glands are inferior to the tongue and have many tubes that lead to the lower oral cavity. Label the salivary...

Lower Limb Arteries

Lower Limbs Label

Blood in the lower limb comes from the branches of the iliac arteries. Blood in the common iliac artery flows into the internal iliac artery and into the external iliac artery. Once it passes by the inguinal ligament a connective tissue band that stretches from the ilium to the pubis the external iliac artery becomes the femoral artery. The femoral artery takes blood down the anterior thigh but there is a branch called the deep femoral artery that takes blood closer to the bone. The femoral...

Hepatic Portal Veins Trunk Veins

Veine Intercostal

Most of the blood of the body returns to the heart by capillaries flowing into venules and finally into veins before reaching the heart. In a portal system blood moves from one capillary system to another capillary system before reaching the heart. The hepatic portal system takes blood from the capillary beds of many of the abdominal organs and carries it to the liver where metabolic processing takes place. The hepatic portal vein receives blood from various veins including the splenic vein,...

Anterior Surface View Of Heart

Label Aortic Arch And The Major Branches

The apex of the heart is inferior and the base is superior. Label each chamber of the heart and color them each a different color. Locate the coronary arteries and their branches and color them in red. The right coronary artery leads to the right marginal artery. The left coronary artery takes blood to the anterior interventricular branch and the circumflex branch. The cardiac veins can also be seen on the anterior side. The great cardiac vein runs in the interventricular sulcus on the anterior...

Mclical 145

Tibial Nerve Roots

The sacral plexus has nerves that provide genital innervation and also has motor nerves to the posterior hip, thigh, and anterior and posterior leg. The pudendal nerve innervates the penis and scrotum in males, the clitoris, labia, and distal vagina in females, and the muscles of the pelvic floor in both sexes. The sacral plexus also has the superior and inferior gluteal nerves that innervate the gluteal muscles and the tibial nerve and the common fibular nerve. These last two nerves are...

Overview Of The Nervous System

Label The Parts The Synapses

The body must react to the external environment and the internal environment and communicate information between regions of the body. This job is primarily the task of the nervous system. Proper response to the external environment is critical for thermal regulation, response to threats, taking advantage of opportunities such as food availability, and a host of other stimuli. Response to the internal environment is important for sensing muscle tension, digestive processes, maintenance of blood...

Tonsils

Waldeyer Ring

The tonsils are lymph organs that provide protection against microbes entering the mouth and nose. Tonsils are regions of mucous membrane with lymph tissue. The pharyngeal tonsils are located in the nasopharynx a region posterior to the nasal cavity and superior to the oral cavity and they provide some protection from inhaled material. The lingual tonsils are on the posterior part of the tongue and, along with the palatine tonsils on the side of the oral cavity, they provide protection from...

Stomach

Gastric Visceral Peritoneum

The stomach is located on the left side of the body, just inferior to the diaphragm. It is the part of the alimentary canal located between the esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach has an upper cardia and a small domed portion called the fundus. The stomach contents are restricted from flowing back into the esophagus by the esophageal sphincter. If stomach fluid refluxes into the esophagus, it is felt as heartburn. The main portion of the stomach is the body and the narrow region,...

Joints

Glenoid Labrum

Shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint that connects the humerus to the glenoid fossa of the scapula. The joint is deepened by the glenoid labrum which is a fibrocartilage ring. There are numerous ligaments that connect the scapula to the humerus. Another ball and socket joint is the acetabulofemoral joint. It also has an acetabular labrum and numerous ligaments that joint the femur to the hip. Answer Key a. Articular cartilage, b. Glenoid labrum, c. Capsule, d. Glenoid fossa, e. Humerus, f....

Shapessyimapse

Forebrain Midbrain And Hindbrain

The most common neuron in the CNS is the multipolar neuron. It consists of many dendrites and a single axon. Bipolar neurons are not very common. They are found in the eye, in the nose, and in the ear and consist of a singular dendrite and an axon. Pseudo unipolar neurons make up the sensory nerves of the body. They consist of a cluster of dendrites at one end, a long axon leading to the nerve cell body, and another axon leaving the nerve cell body at the...

Midsacittal

Cervix And Clitoris

The ovaries produce the oocytes that are released into the pelvic cavity. Locate the suspensory ligaments that attach the ovaries to the pelvic wall. The round ligament attaches the uterus anteriorly. The oocytes travel into the uterine tubes and then pass into the uterus. The uterus has a domed fundus near the entrance of the uterine tubes and a cervix that inserts into the vagina. The depression between the uterus and the rectum is the rectouterine pouch. The vagina is inferior to the uterus...

Lungs Amd Membranes

Pleura Label

The lungs are in the thoracic cavity on either side of the mediastinum. The membrane that occurs on the inside of the ribs and on the superior aspect of the diaphragm is known as the parietal pleura. The space inside of this is the pleural cavity and the lungs occupy the pleural cavities. The innermost membrane is the visceral pleura and it is attached to the surface of the lung. The right lung has three lobes a superior lobe, a middle lobe, and an inferior lobe. The left lung has two lobes a...

Midsagittal Brain To Label

Midsagittal Section Human Brain

When seen from an inferior view, many different features can be seen on the brain. The frontal lobe is anterior and the temporal lobe and cerebellum are visible as well. The cerebellum has small folds called folia. The medulla oblongata is attached to the spinal cord and the pons is anterior to the medulla oblongata. Anterior to the pons are the mammillary bodies which are responsible for the olfactory smell reflex. The pituitary gland is next to the mammillary bodies. Anterior to the pituitary...

Ecgconduction Pathway

Purkinje Fibers

The heart has specialized cells that initiate an electrical impulse that radiates throughout the heart. The cells are clustered in a particular area known as the sinoatrial node or the pacemaker. These cells produce a depolarization that travels across the atria which depolarize and then contract. Depolarization is an electrical event while contraction is a mechanical event. Between the wall of the right atrium and the right ventricle is a lump of tissue known as the atrioventricular AV node....