The adenohypophysis produces and secretes many hormones that have diverse target areas. Growth hormone (GH) is released by the pituitary and causes growth and division of cells throughout the body. Prolactin is more specific in its function. Prolactin stimulates the mammary glands to become functional in milk production. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are gonadotropins that cause the ovaries and testes to release hormones. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) causes the thyroid gland to secrete hormones and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has an influence on the adrenal cortex.
The posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis, stores and secretes a hormone called oxytocin. This hormone has many functions. It causes milk letdown during nursing and has multiple functions as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It is secreted during orgasm in the female and is also released when the infant is nursing. Oxytocin also has an eifect on kidney water balance. The other hormone stored in the neurohypophysis is antidiuretic hormone or ADH. It is also known as vasopressin. It causes absorption of water from the collecting tubules of the kidney decreasing the volume of water in urine.
Answer Key: a. Adenohypophysis, b. Thyroid stimulating hormone, c. Prolactin, d. Growth hormone, e. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, f. Luteinizing hormone, g. Follicle stimulating hormone, h. Neurohypophysis, i. Oxytocin, j. Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.