Human Body Diagram

Muscles can be grouped into anatomical regions such as muscles of the head, arm or torso. Muscles can also be functionally related, for example, muscles that act on the thigh or muscles that flex the hand.

Origin, Insertion, Action

The origin of the muscle is the stable part of the muscle. The majority of muscles have origins that are superior, proximal, or medial to the insertion. There are only a few exceptions to this rule. The insertion of the muscle is the part of the muscle that has the greatest motion when the muscle contracts. In some cases a muscle can move either the origin or the insertion and you should learn the origins and insertions as presented. The action of a muscle is what the muscle does. Some muscles are flexors and decrease joint angles. Some are extensors, adductors, abductors, rotators, etc. The action of the muscle is every movement the muscle does.

When you study muscles, it helps to take two or three at a time and learn just the origins of the muscles. When you know those, then study the insertions, and finally, the actions. After you know the muscles well, then take another group of muscles and add them to the list. If you try to learn twenty muscles at a time, the task will be frustrating, so it is best to take them in small groups.

Muscle Names

The muscles are named by different criteria and understanding how they are named can help you to remember the muscle. Muscles can be named for their shape. The trapezius is a trapezoid-like muscle. The rhomboideus muscles are shaped like a rhombus. Muscles can be named by the number of heads they have. The triceps brachii has three heads. Muscles can be named by location.The rectus abdominis literally means "the straight muscle of the abdomen." The tibialis anterior is the front muscle on the tibia. Muscles can be named according to size. The teres major is the large muscle and the teres minor is the small muscle. Teres means "round." Some muscles are superficial while others are deep. The flexor digitorum superficialis is superficial to the flexor digitorum profundus. Muscles can also be named for their action. There are the adductors, the flexors and extensor muscles, etc.

Muscles that cross joints of the body move those joints. The main muscle that causes the joint to move is called the prime mover or agonist. A muscle that helps the prime mover is called a synergist. A muscle that opposes the prime mover is called an antagonist. If both the prime mover and the antagonist contract, then the joint is fixed.

Muscle Groups

There are groups of muscles that act together. The rotator cuff (musculotendinous cuff) muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. These are the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus the teres minor and the subscapularis. The abdominal muscles are the rectus abdominis, the external oblique, the internal oblique, and the transversus abdominis. The quadriceps femoris group are the muscles of the anterior thigh. These are the rectus femoris, the vastus lateralis, the vastus medialis, and the vastus intermedius. The hamstrings are muscles on the posterior thigh and they consist of the biceps femoris, the semitendinosus, and the semimembranosus. There are many more functional groups of muscles but these are a few of the major ones.

The muscles of the body are numerous and flash cards are a great tool to learn muscles. Cut out the cards along the lines. As we said before, it is best to take a few cards at a time and learn them well. You should color each muscle on the front side of the card and put a small 'O' where the origin of the muscle is and a small T" where the insertion of the muscle is. Each muscle is illustrated isolated from other muscles so that the origin and the insertion are plainly visible. The name of the muscle is on the back of the illustration. The origin (O), insertion (I), and action (A) are listed for each muscle on the back of the card.

Special Muscle Flashcard Section kaplan.. . Muscles of the Human Body IliedlCal


Human Body Major Muscle Groups

Answer Key: a. Sternocleidomastoid, b. Pectoralis major, c. Deltoid, d. Biceps brachii, e. Rectus abdominis, f. External oblique, g. Sartorius, h. Quadriceps femoris, i. Tibialis anterior

Special Muscle Flashcard Section kaplait.. . Muscles of the Human Body liiedlCal

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