The clavicle is a thin bone that stabilizes the shoulder joint in a lateral position. It has a blunt end that articulates with the sternum (the sternal end) and a flattened end that joins with the acromion process of the scapula. This is called the acromial end. A small bump on the inferior part of the clavicle has a ligament that attaches to the coracoid process of the scapula. This bump is called the conoid tubercle. Label the clavicle and color the ends and the conoid tubercle.
Answer Key: a. Sternal end, b. Acromial end, c. Conoid tubercle
The humerus has a proximal head that fits into the glenoid fossa of the scapula. Just at the edge of the head is a rim known as the anatomical neck. Below this neck are the greater and lesser tubercle and the depression between the two is the intertubercular groove. Below these is the surgical neck of the humerus. The deltoid muscle attaches to the humerus at the deltoid tuberosity and the two expanded wing-like processes at the distal end of the humerus are the supracondylar ridges. Inferior to these are the medial and lateral epicondyles and at the articulating ends of the humerus are the lateral capitulum and the medial trochlea. The depression on the anterior surface of the humerus into which the ulna fits is called the coronoid fossa and the posterior depression where the elbow locks into the humerus is called the olecranon fossa. Label the figure and color in the specific parts of the illustration.
Answer Key: a. Greater tubercle, b. Head, c. Anatomical neck, d. Lesser tubercle, e. Intertubercular groove, f. Surgical neck, g. Deltoid tuberosity, h. Supracondylar ridges, i. Lateral epicondyle, j. Coronoid fossa, k. Olecranon fossa, I. Medial epicondyle, m. Capitulum, n. Trochlea
The radius has a circular head, a radial tuberosity on the shaft (where the biceps brachii muscle attaches), and a distal styloid process. At the distal end of the radius is a depression where the ulna joins with the radius. This is known as the ulnar notch of the radius.
The ulna has a proximal olecranon process, a coronoid process, and the trochlear notch between the two. Just distal to the coronoid process of the ulna is the tuberosity of the ulna, a projection where muscles attach. The head of the ulna is distal and it also has a styloid process. At the proximal portion of the ulna is a depression where the head of the radius articulates with the ulna. This depression is known as the radial notch of the ulna.
When the two bones are joined you can see where each fits into the other. On the edge of each bone is the interosseus margin. This is a ridge where the interosseus membrane connects the bones.
Answer Key: a. Olecranon process, b. Trochlear notch, c. Coronoid process, d. Radial notch, e. Tuberosity of the ulna, f. Head, g. Radial tuberosity, h. Interosseus margin, i. Ulnar notch, j. Styloid process
The hand consists of 27 bones divided into three groups: the carpals, the metacarpals, and the phalanges. The thumb is known as the pollex and is listed as the first digit of the hand. The index finger is the second digit and the fingers are listed sequentially with the little finger being the fifth digit. The bones of the fingers are known as phalanges and they are named according to what digit they belong and as being proximal, middle or distal. Therefore the bone of tip of the little finger is the distal phalanx of the fifth digit while the bone in the place where you would normally wear a wedding ring is the proximal phalanx of the fourth digit. Each phalanx has a proximal base, a shaft, and a distal head. The metacarpals are the bones of the palm of the hand. Each metacarpal also has a proximal base, a shaft, and a distal head. There are five metacarpals and they are named for the phalanges that extend from them. The first metacarpal articulates with the thumb. The carpals are the bones of the wrist. There are eight carpal bones in two rows. The bone under the thumb is the trapezium. The one medial to it is the trapezoid. The capitate is found under the third metacarpal and the hamate finishes that row. Proximal to the trapezium is the scaphoid, which joins with the radius. The next bone in line is the lunate, followed by the triquetrum, and finally the little pisiform bone. If you memorize the bones in this sequence you can use a mnemonic device to remember them. This mnemonic is The Tom Cat Has Shaken Loose To Prowl. The first letter of the mnemonic represents the first letter of the carpal bone. Label the illustration and color all of the phalanges one color. Color the metacarpals another color and color the carpal bones individual colors. As you color the various illustrations of the hand use the same color scheme for the bones.
Answer Key: a. Phalanges, b. Head, c. Shaft, d. Base, e. Hamate, f. Capitate, g. Triquetrum, h. Lunate, i. Metacarpal, j. Trapezoid, k. Trapezium, I. Scaphoid, m. Pisiform
Right Hand, Anterior View, Carpals
The hip bones are known as the os coxae. Each os coxa is a result of the fusion of three bones, the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis. Label and color in these three fused bones using a different color for each area. The two os coxae, when joined together by the pubic symphysis, form the pelvis and it can be divided into an upper false pelvis and a lower true pelvis separated by the pelvic brim. The anterior superior iliac spine and the anterior inferior iliac spine can be seen from the front. The top ridge of the pelvis is the iliac crest. The large, inferior hole is the obturator foramen and the depression superior to it is the acetabulum. Note the junction of the sacrum and the ilium that forms the sacroiliac joint. Label the features of the anterior view and color them in.
Answer Key: a. Iliac crest, b. Sacroiliac joint, c. Greater sciatic notch, d. Anterior superior iliac spine, e. Anterior inferior iliac spine, f. Acetabulum, g. Obturator foramen, h. Pubic symphysis, i. False pelvis, j. True pelvis, k. Ilium, I. Ischium, m. Pubis m.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.