The pineal gland is a small gland located posterior to the corpus callosum in the brain. It has the shape of a pine nut but is a little bit smaller. It secretes the hormone melatonin; melatonin levels increase during the night and decrease during the day.
The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is suspended from the brain by a stalk called the infundibulum. The pituitary sits in the hypophyseal fossa which is a depression in the sphenoid bone. The pituitary is a complicated gland that has numerous functions. The adenohypophysis or anterior pituitary originates from the oral cavity during development and consists of epithelium. It produces several hormones which will be discussed later. The anterior pituitary has cells that pick up histological stain differently. These are acidophilic cells and basophilic cells. The neurohypophysis or posterior pituitary is derived from the brain during development and does not make its own hormones but stores hormones produced in the hypothalamus. Label the pineal gland, the corpus callosum, and the pituitary gland and color them in. Label the parts of the pituitary and use different colors for each part.
Answer Key: a. Pituitary gland (hypophysis), b. Pineal gland, c. Corpus callosum, d. Hypophyseal fossa, e. Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary), f. Sphenoid bone, g. Infundibulum, h. Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary), i. Basophilic cell j. Acidophilic cell
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.