Cells consist of an enclosing plasma membrane, an inner cytoplasm with numerous organelles, and other cellular structures. The fluid portion of the cell is called the cytosol. Color the cytosol in last after you color the rest of the cellular structures. One of the major structures in the cell is the nucleus. It is the genetic center of the cell and consists of fluid karyoplasm, chromatin (containing DNA), and the nucleolus. Color these features and label them on the illustration.
The cytoskeleton consists of microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments. It is involved in maintaining cell shape, fixing organelles, and directing some cellular activity.
Label the organelles of the cell and use a different color for each one. The mitochondria are the energy-producing structures of the cell while the
Golgi apparatus assembles complex biomolecules and transports them out of the cell. Proteins are made in the cell by ribosomes. If the ribosomes are found by themselves in the cytoplasm, they are called free ribosomes. If they are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum, they are called bound ribosomes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum manufactures lipids and helps in breaking down toxic materials in the cell. Other structures in the cell are vesicles (sacs that hold liquids). Phagocytic vesicles ingest material into the cell. Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes while peroxisomes degrade hydrogen peroxide in the cell. After you label and color the organelles make sure to go back and shade in the cytosol. Centrioles are microtubules grouped together and are involved in cell division.
The plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer. Color the phosphate molecules on the outside and inside of the membrane one color and the lipid layer another color. Cholesterol molecules occur in the membrane and, depending on their concentration, can make the membrane stiff or more fluid. Proteins that are found on the outside of the membrane are called peripheral proteins while proteins that pass ijocto
through the membrane are called integral proteins. Frequently these make up gates or channels that allow material to pass through the membrane. Attached to proteins on the cell membrane are carbohydrate chains. These provide cellular identity. Label and color the cell membrane structures.
Answer Key: a. Golgi apparatus, b. Lysosome, c. Peroxisome, d. Phagocytic vesicle, e. Nucleus, f. Nucleolus, g. Chromatin, h. Karyoplasm, i. Cytoskeleton, j. Centrioles, k. Plasma membrane, I. Cytoplasm, m. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, n. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, o. Mitochondrion, p. Free ribosomes, q. Phospholipid bilayer, r. Integral protein, s. Carbohydrate chain, t. Peripheral protein, a Phosphate molecule, v. Lipid layer, w. Cholesterol molecule
There are four types of tissues in humans and these make up all of the organs and binding material in the body. Epithelial tissue makes up linings of the body. In many cases, where there is exposure (outside, such as the skin, or inside, such as in blood vessels), epithelium is the tissue found. It is named according to its layers (typically simple or stratified) and the shape of cells (such as cuboidal). Simple squamous epithelium is a single layer of flattened cells. Simple cuboidal epithelium is also a single layer of cells but the cells are in the shape of cubes. Simple columnar epithelium is a single layer of long columnar cells. Label and color these epithelial types and pay attention to the basement membrane, the noncellular layer that attaches the epithelium to lower layers. It should be colored red. Color the nuclei in purple, the cytoplasm blue, and label the cells.
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is in a single layer of cells but it looks stratified on first appearance. Not all of the cells reach the surface of the tissue. All of the cells reach the basement membrane. Label and color the nuclei, basement membrane, cell membrane and the cilia in this tissue.
Answer Key: a. Simple squamous epithelium, b. Simple cuboidal epithelium, c. Simple columnar epithelium, d. Cilia, e. Cell membrane, t. Nuclei, g. Basement membrane, h. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.