Neurophysiology

Motor Neuron Spatial Summation

Synaptic Transmission Temporal and Spatial Summation chart 2.1 summary of some neurotransmitters and where within the central and peripheral nervous system they are found A. Resting state motor nerve cell shown with synaptic boutons of excitatory and inhibitory nerve fibers ending close to it A. Resting state motor nerve cell shown with synaptic boutons of excitatory and inhibitory nerve fibers ending close to it C. Temporal excitatory summation a series of impulses in one excitatory fiber...

Spinal Cord Sensory

Spinal Cord Posterior Horn Sensory

Figure 2.14 Peripheral Nervous System Figure 2.14 Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system PNS consists of all of the neural elements outside of the CNS brain and spinal cord and provides the connections between the CNS and all other body organ systems. The PNS consists of somatic and autonomic components. The somatic component innervates skeletal muscle and skin and is shown here see Figure 2.15 for the autonomic nervous system . The somatic component of the peripheral nerves...

Posterior Meningeal Artery

Pericallosal Artery

Thalamogeniculate arteries Anterior choroidal artery Crura of fornix Anterolateral central lenticulostriate arteries Lateral and medial geniculate bodies of left thalamus Choroid plexuses of lateral ventricles Occipital posterior horn of right lateral ventricle Right dorsal branch to corpus callosum posterior pericallosal artery gt right posterior Calcarine cerebral artery Anterolateral central lenticulostriate arteries Lateral and medial geniculate bodies of left thalamus Choroid plexuses of...

Cerebellar Arteries

Anterior Communicating Artery Distal

Medial frontobasal orbitofrontal artery Distal medial striate artery recurrent artery of Heubner Anterolateral central lenticulostriate arteries Lateral frontobasal orbitofrontal artery Labyrinthine internal acoustic artery Posterior inferior cerebellar artery PICA cut Distal medial striate artery recurrent artery of Heubner Posterior communicating artery Anterior choroidal artery Optic tract Cerebral crus Lateral geniculate body Posterior medial choroidal artery Posterior lateral choroidal...

Pharyngeal Plexus

Glossopharyngeal Nerve Cervical Plexus

Efferent fibers Afferent fibers Parasympathetic fibers Caroticotympanic nerve from internal carotid plexus Pharyngotympanic auditory tube and pharyngeal opening Stylopharyngeus muscle and branch from glossopharyngeal nerve Spinal tract and spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve Solitary tract nucleus Nucleus ambiguus Caroticotympanic nerve from internal carotid plexus Pharyngotympanic auditory tube and pharyngeal opening Pharyngeal, tonsillar and lingual branches of glossopharyngeal nerve Superior...

Blood Brain Barrier

Blood Brain Barrier

The blood-brain barrier BBB is the cellular interface between the blood and the central nervous system CNS brain and spinal cord It serves to maintain the interstitial fluid environment to ensure optimal functionality of the neurons. This barrier consists of the capillary endothelial cells with an elaborate network of tight junctions and astrocytic foot processes that abut the endothelium and its basement membrane. The movement of large molecules and other substances including many drugs from...

Nuclei Of Spinal Cord T1

Spinal Vestibular Nucleus

Vestibular System Vestibulospinal Tracts Excitatory endings Inhibitory endings Ascending fibers in medial longitudinal fasciculi - Medial vestibulospinal fibers in medial longitudinal fasciculi Medial vestibulospinal fibers in medial longitudinal fasciculi Somatotopical pattern in lateral vestibular nucleus Fibers from cristae rotational stimuli Fibers from maculae gravitational stimuli To flexor muscles To extensor muscles Excitatory ending Lateral vestibulospinal tract Somatotopical pattern...

Neuromuscular Junction

The Neuromuscular Junction Myofibril

Synaptic Transmission Neuromuscular Junction Figure 2.5 Structure of the Neuromuscular Junction Junctional fold Sarcoplasm Acetylcholine receptor sites Figure 2.5 Structure of the Neuromuscular Junction Motor axons that synapse on skeletal muscle form expanded terminals called neuromuscular junctions motor endplates . The motor axon loses its myelin sheath and expands into a Schwann cell-invested synaptic terminal that resides within a trough in the muscle fiber. Acetylcholine-containing...

Biceps Femoris Long Head

Peroneal Sural Tibial Nerves

Sciatic Nerve and Posterior Cutaneous Nerve of Thigh Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh S1, 2, 3 Long head cut of biceps femoris muscle Adductor magnus muscle also partially supplied by obturator nerve Gastrocnemius muscle Sural nerve Soleus muscle Tibial nerve Long head cut of biceps femoris muscle Adductor magnus muscle also partially supplied by obturator nerve Gastrocnemius muscle Sural nerve Soleus muscle Tibial nerve Common fibular peroneal division of sciatic nerve Long head cut of...

Hypogastric Plexus

Rectal Nerve

Inferior phrenic arteries and plexuses Left gastric artery and gastric plexus Superior mesenteric artery and plexus Inferior mesenteric ganglion, artery and plexus Nerve from inferior hypogastric plexus to sigmoid and descending colon parasympathetic Sacral splanchnic nerves sympathetic Inferior hypogastric pelvic plexus T10 spinal nerve anterior ramus White and gray rami communicantes Greater Inferior phrenic arteries and plexuses Left gastric artery and gastric plexus Superior mesenteric...

Meissner S Corpuscle

Merkel Disc Skin

Melanocyte Arrector muscle of hair Sebaceous gland Cuticle Hair cuticle Sweat gland Hair matrix Papilla of hair follicle Hair cuticle Sweat gland Hair matrix Papilla of hair follicle Detail of Merkel's disc Skin ligaments Axon' Schwann cells Detail of free nerve ending Figure 2.23 Skin and Cutaneous Receptors __ Cutaneous receptors respond to touch mechanoreceptors , pain nociceptors , and temperature thermoreceptors . Several different types of receptors are present in skin. Meissner's...

Foramen Of Monro

Foramen Monro Veins

Tela choroidea cut edge of 3rd ventricle- Temporal inferior horn of lateral ventricle Tela choroidea cut edge of 3rd ventricle- Temporal inferior horn of lateral ventricle Occipital posterior horn of lateral ventricle Corpus callosum cut Head of caudate nucleus Septum pellucidum Columns of fornix Anterior tubercle Stria terminalis Interthalamic adhesion Lamina affixa Stria medullaris Habenular trigone Pulvinar retracted Lateral geniculate body Medial geniculate body Brachium of superior...

Facial Nerve Vestibulocochlear

Geniculum Facial Nerve

Greater petrosal nerve Deep petrosal nerve from internal carotid plexus Lesser petrosal nerve Nerve vidian of pterygoid canal Otic ganglion Pterygopalatine ganglion Frontal belly frontalis of occipitofrontalis Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Internal acoustic meatus Intermediate nerve Motor nucleus of facial nerve Superior salivatory nucleus Solitary tract nucleus Tympanic nerve Jacobson from glossopharyngeal nerve Caroticotympanic nerve from internal carotid plexus Submandibular g...

Thyrocervical Trunk

Subclavian Artery Vertebral Artery

Caroticotympanic branch of internal carotid artery Posterior inferior cerebellar artery External carotid artery Internal carotid artery Superior thyroid artery Common carotid artery Vertebral artery Ascending cervical artery Inferior thyroid artery Thyrocervical trunk Subclavian artery Brachiocephalic trunk 3 Internal carotid-External carotid

Arteries To Gastrointestinal

Visceral Arteries

Figure 2.16 Cholinergic and Adrenergic Synapses Schema Upper lumbar part of spinal cord L1-2 3 Upper lumbar part of spinal cord L1-2 3 The autonomic nervous system ANS is a two-neuron chain, with the preganglionic neuron arising from the central nervous system and synapsing on a postganglionic neuron located in a peripheral autonomic ganglion. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia. The parasympathetic division of the ANS releases acetylcholine...

Medulla Oblongata

Medulla Oblongata Vagus Nerve

Oculomotor nerve III Facial nerve VII Glossopharyngeal nerve IX Medulla oblongata Vagus nerve X Arrector smooth muscle of hair follicle Note Above three structures are shown at only one level but occur at all levels Note Blue-shaded areas indicate zones of parasympathetic outflow from CNS Oculomotor nerve III Facial nerve VII Glossopharyngeal nerve IX Medulla oblongata Vagus nerve X Arrector smooth muscle of hair follicle Note Above three structures are shown at only one level but occur at all...

Fibularis Longus

Neuroanatomy Superficial Peroneal Nerve

Common fibular peroneal nerve phantom Common fibular peroneal nerve L4, 5, S1, 2 Fibularis peroneus longus muscle cut Superficial fibular peroneal nerve Branches of lateral sural cutaneous nerve Inferior extensor retinaculum partially cut Lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve branch of sural nerve Fibularis peroneus longus muscle cut Superficial fibular peroneal nerve Branches of lateral sural cutaneous nerve Inferior extensor retinaculum partially cut Lateral sural cutaneous nerve phantom Extensor...

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

Superior lateral From axillary nerve cutaneous nerve of arm--- Superficial terminal branch Deep terminal branch Lateral epicondyle -Anconeus muscle Brachioradialis muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Supinator muscle Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Extensor digitorum muscle and extensor digiti minimi muscle Posterior interosseous nerve continuation of deep branch of radial nerve distal to supinator muscle Superior lateral From axillary nerve cutaneous nerve of arm--- Inferior...

Hypophyseal Vein

Neurohypophysis

Primary plexus of hypophyseal portal system Adenohypophysis anterior lobe of pituitary gland Primary plexus of hypophyseal portal system Efferent hypophyseal vein to cavernous sinus Neurohypophysis posterior lobe of pituitary gland Capillary plexus of infundibular process Efferent hypophyseal vein to cavernous sinus Efferent hypophyseal veins to cavernous sinus Efferent hypophyseal vein to cavernous sinus Secondary plexus of hypophyseal portal system Adenohypophysis anterior lobe of pituitary...

Commissure Of Fornix

Amygdaloid Body

Genu of corpus callosum Head of caudate nucleus Columns of fornix Body of fornix Thalamus Uncus Crura of fornix Fimbria of hippocampus Hippocampus Commissure of fornix Splenium of corpus callosum Lateral ventricle The limbic system includes the hypothalamus and a collection of interconnected structures in the telencephalon cingulate, parahip-pocampal, and subcallosal gyri , as well as the amygdala and hip- pocampal formation. The limbic system functions in linking emotion and motivation...

Levator Palpebrae Superioris

Occipital Lobe Macular Fibers

Optic Nerve II Visual Pathway Schema Central darker circle represents macular zone Lighter shades represent monocular fields Oculomotor III , Trochlear IV and Abducent VI Nerves Schema NEUROANATOMY Internal carotid artery and nerve plexus Lateral rectus muscle and abducent nerve turned back Parasympathetic fibers Internal carotid artery and nerve plexus Lateral rectus muscle and abducent nerve turned back Parasympathetic fibers Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion Cavernous plexus Common...

Gastroepiploic Artery

Right Vagus Branch

Nerves of Stomach and Duodenum continued Plexus on gastro-omental gastroepiploic arteries Plexus on gastro-omental gastroepiploic arteries Plexus on anterior superior and anterior inferior pancreatico-duodenal arteries Superior mesenteric ganglion and plexus Posterior gastric branch of posterior vagal trunk Hepatic branch of anterior vagal trunk via lesser omentum Branch from hepatic plexus to cardia via lesser omentum Right inferior phrenic artery and plexus Celiac branch of posterior vagal...

See Also Plate 160

Left Gastric Artery Branches

Gastric branches of anterior vagal trunk branches from posterior trunk behind stomach Vagal branches parasympathetic motor, secretomotor and afferent fibers accompany superior mesenteric artery and its branches usually as far as left colic splenic flexure Efferent fibers Afferent fibers Parasympathetic fibers Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Hepatic branch of anterior vagal trunk in lesser omentum Celiac branches...

Cerebrospinal Ventricle

Csf Circulation

Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF Circulation of CSF ventricle phantom Superior sagittal sinus ventricle phantom Superior sagittal sinus Figure 2.11 Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Figure 2.11 Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF circulates through the four brain ventricles two lateral ventricles and a third and fourth ventricle and in the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Most of the CSF is reabsorbed into the venous system through the arachnoid granulations and through the...

In Basis Pontis

Corticospinal Tract Topographic

Anterior corticospinal tract Lateral corticospinal tract Lateral aspect of cerebral cortex to show topographic projection of motor centers on precentral gyrus Lateral aspect of cerebral cortex to show topographic projection of motor centers on precentral gyrus Fibers originate in motor cortex and descend via posterior limb of internal capsule to basis pedunculi of midbrain Longitudinal bundles branch upon entering basis pontis and rejoin to enter pyramids of medulla At lower medulla, bulk of...

Internal Vertebral Venous Plexus

How Dissect Dorsal Root Ganglion

Recurrent meningeal branches of spinal nerve Spinal sensory dorsal root ganglion Lateral horn of gray matter of spinal cord Internal vertebral epidural venous plexus Spinal sensory dorsal root ganglion Lateral horn of gray matter of spinal cord Dorsal and ventral roots of lumbar and sacral spinal nerves forming cauda equina Internal vertebral epidural venous plexus Dorsal and ventral roots of lumbar and sacral spinal nerves forming cauda equina Arachnoid mater Ventral root Spinal nerve Ventral...

Ascending Pharyngeal Artery

Pharyngeal Artery

Left middle meningeal artery Posterior cerebral artery Superior cerebellar artery Basilar artery Anterior communicating artery Ophthalmic artery Left labyrinthine internal acoustic artery Anterior communicating artery Ophthalmic artery Left labyrinthine internal acoustic artery Mastoid branch of left occipital artery Posterior inferior cerebellar artery Brachiocephalic trunk ,f,r gt - Internal thoracic artery ffij j Mastoid branch of left occipital artery Posterior meningeal branch of left...

Dorsal Root Filaments

Ventral Dorsal Rami

Spinal Cord Membranes and Nerve Roots Ventral root of spinal nerve Dorsal root of spinal nerve Spinal sensory dorsal root ganglion Ventral ramus of spinal nerve Dorsal ramus of spinal nerve Dura mater Subarachnoid space Pia mater overlying spinal cord Filaments of dorsal root Membranes removed anterior view greatly magnified Ventral ramus of spinal nerve Dorsal ramus of spinal nerve Dura mater Subarachnoid space Pia mater overlying spinal cord Filaments of dorsal root Membranes removed anterior...

Anterior Branch Median Nerve

Medial Epicondyle Ulna Nerve

Note Only muscles innervated by ulnar nerve shown Flexor pollicis brevis muscle deep head only superficial head and other thenar muscles supplied by median nerve Flexor digitorum profundus muscle medial part only lateral part supplied by anterior interosseous branch of median nerve Communicating branch of median nerve with ulnar nerve Palmar and dorsal interosseous muscles -3rd and 4th lumbrical muscles turned down Proper palmar digital nerves dorsal digital nerves are from dorsal branch Dorsal...

Reticular Formation

Otoconia Kinocilium

Basilar membrane Supporting cells Spiral lamina Afferent nerve fibers Spiral ganglion Efferent nerve fibers As basilar membrane moves up, hairs are deflected outward, causing e, depolarization of hair cells and increased firing of afferent nerve fibers g The cochlea transduces sound into electrical signals. This is accomplished by the hair cells, which depolarize in response to vibration of the basilar membrane. The basilar membrane moves in response to pressure changes imparted on the oval...

Course Median Nerve

Median Nerve Course Lexor Digitorum

Note Only muscles innervated by median nerve shown Dorsal branches to dorsum of middle and distal phalanges Median nerve C5, 6, 7, 8, T1 Inconstant contribution Pronator teres muscle humeral head Articular branch Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle turned up Median nerve C5, 6, 7, 8, T1 Inconstant contribution Pronator teres muscle humeral head Articular branch Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle turned up Flexor digitorum profundus muscle lateral part supplied by median anterior...

Great Cerebral Vein Of Galen

Superior Anastomotic Vein Trolard

Longitudinal cerebral fissure Anterior cerebral veins Rostrum of corpus callosum Septum pellucidum Anterior vein of septum pellucidum Head of caudate nucleus Anterior vein of caudate nucleus Transverse veins of caudate nucleus Interventricular foramen Monro Columns of fornix Superior thalamostriate vein Superior choroid vein and choroid plexus of lateral ventricle Thalamus Tela choroidea of 3rd ventricle Lateral direct vein Posterior vein of caudate nucleus Internal cerebral veins Basal vein...

Medial Plantar Nerve

Picture Anatomy The Tibial Nerve

Soleus muscle cut and partly retracted Soleus muscle cut and partly retracted Common fibular peroneal nerve Articular branch Lateral sural cutaneous nerve cut Common fibular peroneal nerve Articular branch Lateral sural cutaneous nerve cut Sural nerve S1, 2 via lateral calcaneal and lateral dorsal cutaneous branches Flexor digitorum brevis muscle and nerve Flexor hallucis brevis muscle and nerve Lateral calcaneal branch of sural nerve Nerve to abductor digiti minimi muscle interosseous muscles,...

Spinocerebellar Tract

Neurophysiology Parts Cerebellum

Functional Subdivisions of Cerebellum From muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs Figure 2.21 Cerebellar Afferent Pathways Functional Subdivisions of Cerebellum External cuneate nucleus relay for proprioceptive information From muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs From skin and deep tissues pain and Golgi tendon organs From skin touch and pressure and from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs 2nd spinal projection area gracile lobule Archi-cerebellum vestibulo- j cerebellum...

Dorsal Scapular Nerve

Upper Lateral Cutaneous Nerve Arm

Radial Nerve in Arm and Nerves of Posterior Shoulder Levator scapulae muscle supplied also by branches from C3 and C4 Levator scapulae muscle supplied also by branches from C3 and C4 Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm Inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm Brachialis muscle lateral part remainder of muscle supplied by musculo-cutaneous nerve Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Teres minor muscle Axillary nerve...

Trigeminal Tubercle

Habenular Commissure

3rd ventricle Pulvinar of thalamus Pineal body Superior colliculus Inferior colliculus Trochlear nerve IV Superior medullary velum Lateral recess Superior fovea Sulcus limitans Inferior fovea Trigeminal tubercle Hypoglossal trigone 4th ventricle Choroid plexus of 4th ventricle Medulla oblongata Median aperture foramen of Magendie Decussation of pyramids' Central canal of spinal cord Striae medullares Tenia of 4th ventricle Cuneate tubercle Gracile tubercle Dorsal median sulcus Lateral funiculus...

Superior Laryngeal Nerve

Sacral Outflow

Oculomotor nerve III Facial nerve VII Glossopharyngeal nerve IX Vagus nerve X Internal carotid nerve and plexus Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion C4 spinal nerve Middle cervical sympathetic ganglion Vertebral ganglion Cervicothoracic stellate ganglion Sympathetic trunk Cervical sympathetic P .1.' cardiac nerves Middle ' Thoracic sympathetic cardiac nerves 6th intercostal nerve ventral ramus of T6 spinal nerve Lumbar splanchnic nerves sympathetic Sacral splanchnic nerves sympathetic Pelvic...

Nerves In The Cervical Area

Cervico Thoracic Branch Vagus Nerve

Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion Conjoined sympathetic and vagal superior cervical cardiac nerves Middle cervical sympathetic ganglion Middle cervical sympathetic cardiac nerve Inferior cervical vagal cardiac nerve Inferior cervical sympathetic cardiac nerves Thoracic cardiac branch of vagus nerve Thoracic sympathetic cardiac branches Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion Superior cervical sympathetic cardiac nerve Superior cervical vagal cardiac nerve Middle cervical sympathetic...

Neuroanatomy

Cerebellar Vein

Left superior and inferior colliculi Basal vein Rosenthal Posterior mesencephalic vein Medial geniculate body Lateral mesencephalic vein Lateral geniculate body Splenium of corpus callosum Great cerebral vein Galen Dorsal vein of corpus callosum Inferior sagittal sinus Straight sinus Petrosal vein draining to superior petrosal sinus Vein of lateral recess of 4th ventricle Superior, middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles Falx cerebelli cut and occipital sinus Inferior cerebellar hemispheric...

Retinogeniculostriate Pathway

Occipital Lobe Structure

Projection on right dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus Periphery Macula Structure of retina schematic A Amacrine cells Projection n left B Bipolar cells C Cones G Ganglion cells H Horizontal cells P Pigment cells R Rods Projection on right dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus Figure 2.33 Retinogeniculostriate Visual Pathway The retina has two types of photoreceptors cones that mediate color vision and rods that mediate light perception but with low acuity. The greatest acuity is found in the region...

Orbitofrontal Artery

Orbitofrontal Artery

Anterior parietal postcentral sulcal artery Precentral pre-rolandic sulcal artery Terminal branches of anterior cerebral artery Lateral frontobasal orbitofrontal artery Terminal branches of posterior cerebral artery Superior and inferior terminal branches trunks Terminal branches of posterior cerebral artery Superior and inferior terminal branches trunks Medial frontobasal orbitofrontal artery Medial frontobasal orbitofrontal artery Distal medial striate artery recurrent artery of Heubner...

Extrafusal Fiber

Pacinian Corpuscle Generator Potential

Pacinian Corpuscle as Pressure Transducer Pacinian Corpuscle as Pressure Transducer 1st node Myelin sheath Lamellated capsule Central core Unmyelinated axon terminal A. Sharp on and off changes in pressure at start and end of pulse applied to lamellated capsule are transmitted to central axon and provoke generator potentials, which in turn may trigger action potentials there is no response to a slow change in pressure gradient. Pressure at central core and, accordingly, generator potentials are...

Spinocervical Tract

Somatotopic Representation

Figure 2.27 Proprioceptive Reflex Control of Muscle Tension Interaction of the muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ during passive stretch of a muscle panel A and during a contraction panels B and C . From extensor spindle receptor Ia, II fibers Axoaxonic presynaptic inhibitory synapse - Axoaxonic presynaptic inhibitory synapse - From extensor spindle receptor Ia, II fibers Axosomatic or axodendritic inhibitory synapse From extensor tendon organ Ib fibers Inhibitory synapse Excitatory synapse...

Caudate Nucleus

Caudate Nucleus Splenium

Horizontal sections through cerebrum Lateral ventricle Septum pellucidum Column of fornix Insula Retrolenticular part of internal capsule Occipital posterior horn of lateral ventricle 3rd ventricle External capsule Claustrum Retrolenticular part of internal capsule Occipital posterior horn of lateral ventricle

Paramedian Arteries

Superior Hypophyseal Artery

Vessels dissected out inferior view Anterior cerebral artery A2 segment Anterior cerebral artery Ai segment Distal medial striate artery recurrent artery of Heubner Middle cerebral artery Posterior communicating artery Anterior cerebral artery A2 segment Anterior cerebral artery Ai segment Distal medial striate artery recurrent artery of Heubner Superior cerebellar artery Basilar artery Pontine arteries Anterior inferior cerebellar artery Vertebral artery Anterolateral central lenticulostriate...

Thoracic Trunk Artery

Spleen Splanchnic

Autonomic Nerves and Ganglia of Abdomen Inferior phrenic arteries and plexuses 3rd lumbar ganglion of sympathetic trunk 2nd and 3rd lumbar splanchnic nerves Right testicular ovarian artery and plexus 1st sacral ganglion of sympathetic trunk Superior mesenteric ganglion and plexus Inferior mesenteric artery and plexus Internal and external iliac arteries and plexuses Right and left hypogastric nerves to inferior hypo-gastric pelvic plexus

Intermesenteric Plexus

Pelvic Splanchnic Nerves

Renal and upper ureteric branches from intermesenteric plexus Testicular ovarian artery and plexus Sacral splanchnic nerves branches from upper sacral sympathetic ganglia to hypogastric plexus Inferior hypogastric pelvic plexus with periureteric loops and branches to lower ureter

Lobules Vii And Viii

Posterior Cerebellar Notch

Central lobule II amp III Culmen IV amp V Declive VI Folium VII A Superior semilunar anseriform lobule H VII A Inferior semilunar caudal lobule H VII B Quadrangular lobule H IV-V Primary fissure Horizontal fissure Simple lobule H VI Superior semilunar anseriform lobule H VII A Inferior semilunar caudal lobule H VII B Lingula I Superior medullary velum Flocculus H X 4th ventricle Inferior medullary velum Nodule X Uvula IX Pyramid VIII Tuber VII B Posterior cerebellar notch Posterolateral...

Trigeminal Fasciculus

Posterior Perforated Substance

Pulvinars of thalami Pineal body Superior colliculi Inferior colliculi Trochlear nerve IV Superior medullary velum Superior cerebellar peduncle Thalamus cut surface Lateral geniculate body Optic tract Medial geniculate body Brachia of superior and inferior colliculi Cerebral crus Pons Trigeminal nerve V Middle cerebellar peduncle Glossopharyngeal IX and vagus X nerves Dorsal roots of 1st spinal nerve C1 Optic chiasm Optic tract Tuber cinereum Cerebral crus Lateral geniculate body Posterior...

Occipitotemporal Gyrus

Gyrus Corpus Callosum

Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere brainstem excised Superior sagittal sinus -Choroid plexus of 3rd ventricle Stria medullaris of thalamus Parietooccipital sulcus Cuneus Habenular commissure Pineal body Posterior commissure Calcarine sulcus -Straight sinus in tentorium cerebelli Great cerebral vein Galen Superior colliculus -Inferior colliculus sTectal quadrigeminal plate Cerebellum Superior medullary velum 4th ventricle and choroid plexus Inferior medullary velum Medulla oblongata Isthmus...