In summary, gene therapy using the ex vivo approach has the potential to revolutionize the treatments of many urological diseases. Although the safety and efficiency of this approach must be determined in clinical trials, many clinicians and scientists are excited about the relief that millions of patients will have with this revolutionary technology. However, two problems with gene therapy are the transient expression in transduced cells and the incomplete knowledge regarding the regulation of gene expression. Efforts of MDSC researchers continue to focus on the origin and identity of the population responsible for stem cell-like capabilities, the isolation of these cells from human tissues, the expansion to clinically relevant cell numbers, and controlling the differentiation and signaling processes that regulate progression within a lineage.

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