Radiographic Synopsis

1. AP, lateral, and oblique projections: focal increase in the interpediculate distance or the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal; varying degrees of bony infiltration and destruction; scalloping of vertebral bodies; enlargement of neural foramina; thinned pedicles and laminae (intraspinal neoplasms, cysts, AV malformations, hydrosyringo-myelia)

2. AP projection: focal increase in the interpediculate distance extending across several vertebral bodies; midline,vertically oriented bony spicule; associated vertebral deformities, including hemiverte-brae, block vertebrae, and small vertebral bodies (diastematomyelia)

3. AP, lateral, and oblique projections: focal widening of the spinal canal; thinning of pedicles and laminae; posterior scalloping of the vertebral bodies (Marfan syndrome, spinal extradural cysts)

4. AP projection: lack of fusion of lamina and spinous processes (spinal dysraphism, split notochord syndrome, lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome)

5. AP projection: increased interpediculate distance, rachischisis (otopalatodigital syndrome types I and II)

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