Radiographic Synopsis

PA, LL, lateral oblique, and panoramic projections.

For an overview of the imaging modalities, see previous section.

1. Wide and thickened mandible, with increased mandibular angle; progressive calvarial thickening and skull base sclerosis (van Buchem disease)

2. Massive, asymmetrical mandible, often prognathic with obtuse angle; progressive calvarial thickening and skull base sclerosis, with obliteration of cranial foramina (sclerosteosis)

3. Midface hypoplasia, with relative mandibular prognathism; V-shaped high-arched palate; deviation of nasal septum; crowded teeth; hyper-telorism; hyperacrobrachycephaly, with steep forehead and flat occiput; small anterior cranial fossa; shallow orbits; hypertelorism; malformed skull base, often with platybasia; cloverleaf skull (not mandatory) (Apert syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome)

4. Brachycephaly, unilateral anterior plagiocephaly; striking facial asymmetry; midface hypoplasia with relative mandibular prognathism; narrow or high-arched palate; cleft palate (occasionally); deviation of nasal septum; crowded teeth (Saethre-Chotzen syndrome)

5. Brachycephaly, or another type of craniosynosto-sis; increased digital markings; shallow orbits; maxillary hypoplasia with relative prognathism; crowded teeth; deviation of nasal septum; (Crouzon syndrome)

6. Dolichocephaly, with frontal bossing and narrow temples; high-arched palate; long and inferiorly pointed or squared mandible (Sotos syndrome)

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