Radiographic Synopsis

1. Single (or multiple) focus protruding from the surface of a bone, homogeneously dense, with smooth or lobulated margins (osteoma)

2. Dense, often bizarre osseous excrescences involving one or several bones of a single limb, with undulating, irregular bony contour (melo-rheostosis)

3. Cortical thickening in the diaphyses of tubular bones, especially the long bones, involving the internal and external surfaces, with narrowing of the medullary cavity, sparing of epiphyses, smooth external contour (diaphyseal dysplasia)

4. Shaggy periosteal bone formation with cortical thickening, diaphyseal expansion and medullary narrowing; epiphyseal involvement; ligamentous ossification; bony bridges across the joints; tuftal osteolysis (pachydermoperiostosis)

5. Elevation of the periosteum; multiple bony layers around the periosteum, cortical thickening (secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy)

6. Profound cortical hyperostosis, mostly involving the mandible, the clavicles, and the ribs (Caffey disease)

7. Enlargement of the mandible; sclerosis of the skull base and calvarium; cortical thickening in the tubular bones; sclerotic ribs and clavicles;

osteosclerosis of the neural arches and spinous processes in the spine (endosteal hyperostosis, van Buchem and Worth types)

8. Generalized osteosclerosis with predominant involvement of the skull; endosteal cortical hyperostosis of the tubular bones with undertubula-tion (sclerosteosis)

9. Progressive generalized osteosclerosis; lack of differentiation between cortex and medullary cavity; metaphyseal expansion; transverse radiolucent metaphyseal lines; multiple fractures; 'bone within bone' appearance (osteopetrosis, precocious type and, to a lesser extent, delayed type)

10. Diffuse osteosclerosis; lack of differentiation between the cortex and the medullary cavity; modeling defect with marked metaphyseal expansion compared with the diaphysis; pathologic fractures; dental anomalies; platyspondyly with irregular vertebral end-plates (dysosteoscle-rosis)

11. Irregular thickening of the cortices of the tubular bones,with loss of definition between the cortex and the medullary bone (hyperphosphatasia)

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