Radiographic Synopsis

1. Single ovoid or round islands of dense bone in the spongiosa; radiating trabeculae (enostosis); multiple, small densely calcified foci clustered in the epiphyseal/metaphyseal area of long tubular bones, carpus, tarsus, pelvis and scapula (osteo-poikilosis)

2. Linear, vertical striations of increased density extending from the metaphysis into the diaphysis of long bones (osteopathia striata, SPONASTRIME dysplasia, focal dermal hypoplasia).

3. Diffuse sclerosis of trabecular bone, with loss of cortico-/medullary differentiation in the long bones; varying degrees of skull and vertebral sclerosis (osteopetrosis, pyknodysostosis, dysosteoscle-rosis, Blomstrand dysplasia, Raine dysplasia)

4. Severe sclerosis and hyperostosis of the skull, facial bones, and mandible; widening of ribs and clavicles; diaphyseal expansion of tubular bones, with lack of metaphyseal flare and thin cortices (craniodiaphyseal dysplasia); hyperostosis of the frontal and occipital bones; basal skull sclerosis; hyperostosis of facial bones and, often, of mandible; obliteration of paranasal sinuses; diaphyseal sclerosis in children; metaphyseal expansion, in the absence of a well-defined transition zone between metaphysis and diaphysis (craniometaphy-seal dysplasia); torus-like, sclerotic supraorbital overgrowth; underdeveloped paranasal sinuses; abnormalities of the cranio-cervical junction; marked flaring of ilia; flat capital femoral epiphy-ses and coxa valga; irregular carpotarsal bones (frontometaphyseal dysplasia); mild hyperostosis of the calvarium; obtuse mandibular angle, with mild prognathism; absence of mandibular sclerosis; marked widening of ribs, clavicles, pubic and ischial bones; marked metaphyseal expansion, with abrupt transition zone between diaphysis and metaphysis, or Erlenmeyer flask deformity (metaphyseal dysplasia)

5. Patchy areas of sclerosis of vertebral end-plates, pelvis, and proximal femurs (osteomesopyknosis); osteosclerosis of skull, spine, ribs, clavicles, pelvis, and proximal portions of the tubular bones; osteoporosis of the remaining portions of tubular bones; short stature (osteosclerosis with ectoder-mal dysplasia)

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