PA, AP Towne's, and LL projections, sometimes supplemented with tangential projections. Plain films may outline bony defects of the cranial vault, including parietal foramina and cranium bifidum. Computed tomography (CT), especially if supplemented with high-resolution techniques, delineates the bony defects in all areas of the skull, including those that remain inaccessible to conventional radiography, such as the frontobasal area. Three-dimensional CT reconstructions are best suited to complex malformations of the facial skeleton and skull base, being extremely helpful in the presurgical workup. MR imaging elegantly displays occult fistulas, the anatomy of the herniated masses, and the underlying brain (very helpful in basal cephaloceles).
2. Foramina parietalia permagna; multiple exostoses; occasionally, craniofacial dysostosis (Potocki-Shaffer syndrome)
3. Midline ossification defect at various skull locations; most commonly, a single small (<2 cm), well-marginated oval defect at the parieto-occipi-tal junction; more rarely, single or double ostium at or straddling the foramen caecum, respectively; other signs of craniofacial dysraphism often associated with frontobasal cephaloceles; in cran-ioschisis, wide opening of the skull with external exposure of malformed brain (cranium bifidum)
7. Scalp/skull defects (aplasia cutis congenita)
Was this article helpful?
Have you recently experienced hearing loss? Most probably you need hearing aids, but don't know much about them. To learn everything you need to know about hearing aids, read the eBook, Hearing Aids Inside Out. The book comprises 113 pages of excellent content utterly free of technical jargon, written in simple language, and in a flowing style that can easily be read and understood by all.