How To Get Rid Of Termites

Oplan Termites

Oplan Termites

You Might Start Missing Your Termites After Kickin'em Out. After All, They Have Been Your Roommates For Quite A While. Enraged With How The Termites Have Eaten Up Your Antique Furniture? Can't Wait To Have Them Exterminated Completely From The Face Of The Earth? Fret Not. We Will Tell You How To Get Rid Of Them From Your House At Least. If Not From The Face The Earth.

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Termite Extermination Information

Termites create great damage to your home, which is why you should identify and eliminate them as quickly as they appear. This eBook Oplan Termites teaches you how to solve your termite problem once and for all. Learn how to identify termites, find out if your house is really infested, and eradicate them. Discover Some Of The Most Effective And Time-Proven Methods To Get Rid Of Termites! Learn Some Mean Ways To Really Get Rid Of These Pests From Every Nook And Corner Of Your Home.

Termite Extermination Information Summary

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Author: Scott Harker
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Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This e-book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

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Euryarchaeota In Termite Guts

The presence of Euryarchaeota, and specifically methanogens, in termites from all seven families and all feeding guilds is intriguing. This is especially true as some wood-feeding termites emit little or no methane (Brauman et al., 1992) while in soil-feeding termites methanogenesis can represent as much as 10 of the termite's respiratory effort (Tholen and Brune, 1999). This difference between feeding guilds has led to an effort to understand the community structure and role of methanogens in termite guts. To gain an understanding of the importance and variation in termite gut methanogen communities, it is first necessary to understand the structure of guts within which these methanogens grow.

Why Are There Different Euryarchaeota In Different Termites

The data that presently exists on the distribution and diversity of Eur-yarchaeota in termite guts is striking, especially as the greatest difference appears to be between wood- and soil-feeding termites. The limited studies that have been performed on wood-feeding termites indicate a euryarchaeal community dominated by Methanobrevibacter, while a much more diverse euryarchaeal community is present in soil-feeding termites. If we assume this difference is real rather than a product of poor taxon sampling and limited datasets, then it is pertinent to ask what could be the driver for this difference. If thermodynamics only are considered, then methanogenesis would be expected to outcompete acetogenesis as hydrogenotrophic methano-gens are capable of reducing hydrogen concentrations to a threshold that is too low for acetogenesis to be thermodynamically favorable (Cord-Ruwisch et al., 1988). Clearly, termite evolution has selected for conditions that favor acetogenesis in wood-feeding...

Termite gut structure and metabolism

As termites have evolved from the lower to the higher termites, their guts have become more complex. Termite guts are all tiny but highly effective bioreactors with sharp and constantly maintained gradients of pH, oxygen, hydrogen, and redox conditions (Brune, 1998). These complex environments are ideal for the degradation of cellulose from wood in wood-feeders and more recalcitrant plant lignocellulose and humics in soil-feeders. The difference between the higher and lower termites is seen clearly in gut structure, pH, and the presence or absence of flagellated protozoa. The classic lower termite gut is a simple structure with a paunch (P3) where almost all of the microbial activity is focused (Fig. 3.1A), while most higher termites have a more complex gut structure with some four major sections (Fig. 3.1B), two of which have high pHs for a more detailed description see Bignell (1994) . These reach extremes in the soil-feeding termites where pH of the P3 proctodeal segment can be in...

Uncultured Euryarchaeota in higher termite guts

Higher termite guts lack the flagellated protozoa that dominate the gut microflora of lower termites, yet can produce more methane. In studies on archaea in higher termite guts, a wider diversity of Euryarchaeota have been detected than in lower termites (Table 3.1), including members of the Methanobacteriales, Methanosarcinales, and the Methanomicrobiales. In a very limited analysis, Ohkuma et al. (1999) detected members of all three of the above families in the soil-feeder Pericapritermes nitobei, members of the Methanomicrobiales in the wood-feeder Nasutitermes takasagoensis, and Methanosarcinales in fungus-grower Odontotermes formosanus (Table 3.1). Two much more substantial surveys of archaeal diversity in soil-feeding termites have, using both T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequences, analyzed the axial distribution of archaea in the gut of the soil-feeder C. orthognathus (Friedrich et al., 2001) and the relationship between gut eur-yarchaeal communities and the termites' food-soil in...

The Distribution and Diversity of Euryarchaeota in Termite Guts

Euryarchaeota in Termite Guts 64 A. Termite gut structure and metabolism 64 III. Detection of Euryarchaeota in Termite Guts 67 A. Isolated Euryarchaeota from termite guts 67 B. Uncultured Euryarchaeota in lower termite guts 72 C. Uncultured Euryarchaeota in higher termite guts 73 Different Termites 76

Detection Of Euryarchaeota In Termite Guts

A number of studies have investigated Euryarchaeota in termite guts, although, to date, there has been no systematic sampling across the termite phylogenetic tree. These studies have identified a range of different methanogens and these are presented in a schematic tree in Fig. 3.3. All of the published data is presented in Table 3.1 and is organized with reference to phylogenetically supported clades shown in Fig. 3.3. What is clear from this data is that a considerable diversity of Euryarch-aeota are found in termites. Furthermore, there appears to be a difference between the diversity of Euryarchaeota in lower termites compared to higher termites. The schematic tree (Fig. 3.3) which incorporates groups from all of the studies reported to date shows that while Methanobrevibacter can be detected in all termites, members of the Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales are usually only detected in the higher termites. A substantial study using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes...

Uncultured Euryarchaeota in lower termite guts

The gut wall was the only site where methanogens could be found in R.flavipes (Brune, 1998 Leadbetter and Breznak, 1996), although this was not true in other lower termites (Table 3.1). Using epifluorescence microscopy, Lee et al. (1987) showed that several gut protists from Zootermopsis angusticollis have exo- and endosymbiotic methanogens that were morphologically similar to Methanobrevibacter. Further to this, Messer and Lee (1989) demonstrated that the protozoan Trichonympha produced most of the hydrogen in the termite's gut, and methanogenic symbionts in Tricho-mitopsis produced most of the methane in Z. angusticollis guts. Interestingly, Z. angusticollis appears to produce far more methane than any other wood-feeding termites (Brauman et al., 1992), which may be related to the number of protists that have associated methanogens in their guts which are therefore close to a hydrogen source. Tokura et al. (2000) reported that, in R. speratus and Hodotermopsis sjoestedti, 4-42 of...

Use of Adhesives by Turbellarians

In the Temnocephalida, most of which are ectosymbionts of crustaceans, adhesives are used for feeding (Jennings, 1968), attachment and locomotion (Sewell and Whittington, 1995). Some turbellarians parasitize fishes and the triclad, Micropharynx parasitica, attaches to the dorsal body surface of its elasmobranch ray host using a posterior adhesive pad (Ball and Khan, 1976) and has been mistaken as a monogenean even by specialists (Kearn, 1998). Indeed the presence of attachment devices in extant free-living turbellarians and the fact that similar organs were likely in ancestral turbellarians has prompted Kearn (1998) to suggest that they represented important preadaptations in a progression, among some lineages, to symbiosis. Turbellarian adhesives are also used for other purposes such as feeding, already mentioned for temnocephalans, and a report by Jones and Cumming (1998) describes fishing for termites outside a termite mound by the planarian Microplana termitophaga, using its...

Diversity is important for life

Many species interrelationships are even more intimate. Organisms of different types are often locked in an absolute mutual dependence known as symbiosis. Lichens are familiar examples. A lichen is a symbiont comprising a fungus and a green alga neither species can survive independently of the other. Lichens are very widespread it is estimated that the world contains about 1014 tons of them. Herbivorous mammals such as cows and rabbits, and wood-devouring insects such as termites, eat vast quantities of cellulose, which they cannot digest but bacteria in their guts digest the cellulose and thus provide themselves and their hosts with nutrient. Without these bacteria, most herbivores would starve and if herbivores starved, so would the rest of us. Without termites, ant-eaters would go hungry, though the wooden structures we build in the tropics might be more durable. Without the herbivores (or termites) to provide comfortable guts to inhabit, the cellulose-digesting bacteria would not...

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Arboriphilus and Methanobacterium bryantii from two Nasutitermes higher termite species was reported in a conference abstract (Yang et al., 1985) but there have been no subsequent publications or culture collection deposits to support these claims. The three R. flavipes isolates are all Methanobrevibacter M. cuticularis DSM 11139, M. curvatus DSM 11111, and M.filiformis DSM 11501 (Leadbetter and Breznak, 1996 Leadbetter et al., 1998) that are essentially limited to using H2 CO2 as their energy source. Leadbetter and Breznak (1996) determined that some 10 of the cells in the gut of R.flavipes were Methanobrevibacter and that these were associated with the gut epithelial wall. This was surprising because this region of the gut is exposed to significant amounts of free oxygen (Brune and Friedrich, 2000) that should be toxic to methanogens. However, these two strains, and other Methano-brevibacter species, can mediate a small net oxygen consumption, possibly via the activity of a catalase...

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FIGURE 3.1 Diagram of termite gut structure for (A) lower termites (Ebert and Brune, 1997) and (B) soil-feeding higher termites (Friedrich etal., 2001).The pH of each segment is as reported by Brune and Kuhl (1996) and Brune et al . (1995). Diagrams are published with the kind permission from the American Society for Microbiology and Dr A. Brune, MPI, Marburg, Germany. dominated by flagellated protozoa while the higher termites with their diverse diets from sound wood to true soil-feeding do not. However, despite the clear differences between lower and higher termite, differences in methane emission rates are related not to phylog-eny but to feeding group. Figure 3.2 shows the difference in methane emission from wood-, fungus-, and humus soil-feeding termites (Brauman et al., 1992). In general, wood-feeding termites emit far less methane than any other termites, while soil-feeding termites emit the most. The explanation for this change in terminal oxidation products in termites...

Conclusion

The Euryarchaeota are a critical component of all termite guts, acting as hydrogen sinks in both lower and higher termites. In lower termites and in the wood- and fungus-feeding higher termites, the role of the methano-gens appears to be to mop up trace hydrogen. In the soil-feeding higher termites, methanogenesis lies at the heart of termite nutrition and represents an essential gut process. New analyses of termite evolution suggest that the evolution of the higher termites probably occurred via an exter-nalization of the gut in the fungus-feeding Macrotermitinae followed by the evolution of soil-feeding (Inward et al., 2007). It is plausible that a first step in this process would have been the acquisition of a Methanomicro-biales strain that had the potential to reduce hydrogen partial pressures to levels that allowed the effective exploitation of soil organic matter. Were this the case then it could be legitimately claimed that the evolution of what has become one of the most...

Introduction

Termites are the dominant invertebrates in tropical ecosystems (Collins, 1983 Eggleton et al., 1996 Wood and Sands, 1978 Wood et al., 1982). Through their consumption and digestion of plant-derived material, they have a major influence on soil structure, plant decomposition, carbon mineralization, and nutrient availability (Bignell and Eggleton, 2000 Lavelle et al., 1997 Lee and Wood, 1971 Lobry de Bruyn and Conacher, 1990 Wood and Johnson, 1986). Studying their ecology and physiology, including the role of symbiotic microbes, is a vital to understanding their role in the global ecosystem. Termites are divided into two major groupings the lower and higher termites (Abe et al., 2000 Inward et al., 2007). The lower termites, which presently consist of six families that all feed on wood or grass, are characterized by relatively simple gut structures and the presence of flagellated protists in their guts. In contrast, the higher termites consist of a single family, the Termitidae, which...

Bacchis Subtilis

Abe, T., Higashi, M., and Bignell, D. (2000). ''Termites Evolution, Sociality, Symbiosis, Ecology.'' Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Bignell, D. E. (1994). Soil-feeding and gut morphology in higher termites. In ''Nourishment and Evolution in Insect Societies'' (J. H. Hunt and C. A. Nalepa, eds.), pp. 131-157. Westview Press, Oxford. Bignell, D., and Eggleton, P. (2000). Termites in ecosystems. In ''Termites Evolution, Sociality, Symbiosis, Ecology'' (T. Abe, M. Higashi, and D. Bignell, eds.), pp. 363-387. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Bignell, D. E., Eggleton, P., Nunes, L., and Thomas, K. L. (1997). Termites as mediators of carbon fluxes in tropical forest Budgets for carbon dioxide and methane emissions. In ''Forests and Insects'' (A. D. Watt, N. E. Stork, and M. D. Hunter, eds.), pp. 109-134. Chapman and Hall PLC, London, UK. Brauman, A. (2000). Effect of gut transit and mound deposit on soil organic matter transformations in the soil feeding...