Diagnosis

Thyroid Factor

The Natural Thyroid Diet

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Most thyroid cancers present as asymptomatic thyroid nodules, of which 80 to 95% are benign hyperplastic nodules rather than true neoplasms.9 Furthermore, most of the true neoplasms are benign adenomas rather than thyroid cancers. The task of identifying malignant nodules is therefore a challenge in itself as thyroid nodules are found in 5 to 10% of the population.

Among patients with palpable thyroid nodules, the history is usually not helpful in detecting underlying thyroid malignancy. Symptoms such as hoarseness of voice, dysphagia, or shortness of breath are uncommon and suggest advanced malignancy. However, an increased risk for malignancy is recognized in individuals with a history of ionizing radiation exposure in childhood, appearance of nodules at an age younger than 20 years or older than 60 years, and the male sex in general. Virtually all patients with DTC are clini-

Wild-type RET: (10q11.2)

RET/PTC1: Paracentric inversion of H4 gene (10q21)

RET/PTC2: Translocation of R1a gene (17q23)

RET/PTC3:

RET/PTC4:

> Paracentric inversions of ele 1 gene (10q11.2)

Extracellular Domain

Transmembrane Intracellular

Domain Tyrosine Kinase Domain

Exon 11 RET

Extracellular Domain

Transmembrane Intracellular

Domain Tyrosine Kinase Domain

> Paracentric inversions of ele 1 gene (10q11.2)

Exon 11 RET

Figure 2-1. Schematic representation of the wild-type RET proto-oncogene and activated forms of RET/PTC rearrangements in human papillary thyroid carcinomas. Arrows indicate breakpoints in the RET proto-oncogene and site of fusion with the rearranged genes.

Figure 2-1. Schematic representation of the wild-type RET proto-oncogene and activated forms of RET/PTC rearrangements in human papillary thyroid carcinomas. Arrows indicate breakpoints in the RET proto-oncogene and site of fusion with the rearranged genes.

t10q

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