Interactions Between the Reproductive System and Other Organ Systems

Organ Systems

Indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one At puberty, androgens stimulate development of body hair and apocrine glands and increased sebaceous secretion estrogens stimulate fat deposition and breast development in females pregnancy may cause pigmentation changes and stretch marks Sensory stimulation of skin important to sexual arousal mammary glands nourish infant Androgens and estrogens stimulate adolescent skeletal growth...

Interactions Between the Lymphatic and Immune Systems and Other Organ Systems

Urinary System Interactions

Indicates ways in which these systems affect other organ systems indicates ways in which other organ systems affect these systems Lymphatic system drains excess tissue fluid and removes cellular debris and pathogens. Immune system provides defense against pathogens and immune surveillance against cancer. Skin provides mechanical and chemical barriers to pathogens has antigen-presenting cells in epidermis and dermis and is a common site of inflammation Lymphocytes and macrophages arise from bone...

Hyposecretion and Hypersecretion

Same Person Different Ages Pictures

Inadequate hormone release is called hyposecretion. It can result from tumors or lesions that destroy an endocrine gland or interfere with its ability to receive signals from another gland. For example, a fractured sphenoid bone can sever the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract and thus prevent the transport of oxytocin and antidi-uretic hormone to the posterior pituitary. The resulting ADH hyposecretion disables the water-conserving capability of the kidneys and leads to diabetes insipidus, a...

Interactions Between the Urinary System and Other Organ Systems

Lymphatic Immune System

Indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one The urinary system serves all other systems by eliminating metabolic wastes and maintaining fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance Renal control of fluid balance essential for sweat secretion Epidermis is normally a barrier to fluid loss profuse sweating can lead to oliguria skin and kidneys collaborate in calcitriol synthesis Renal control of calcium and phosphate balance and role...

Testing Your Comprehension

Suppose a pregnant woman with severe morning sickness has been vomiting steadily for several days. How will her loss of stomach acid affect the pH of her body fluids Explain. 2. Suppose a person with a severe anxiety attack hyperventilates and exhales CO2 faster than his body produces it. Consider the carbonic acid reaction on page 70 and explain what effect this hyperventilation will have on his blood pH. Hint Remember the law of mass action. 3. In one form of nuclear decay, a neutron...

The Importance of External Anatomy

Upper Extremity Vein Diagram

In the study of human anatomy, it is easy to become so preoccupied with internal structure that we forget the importance of what we can see and feel externally. Yet external anatomy and appearance are major concerns in giving a physical examination and in many aspects of patient care. A knowledge of the body's surface landmarks is essential to one's competence in physical therapy, cardiopul-monary resuscitation, surgery, making X rays and electrocardiograms, giving injections, drawing blood,...

Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders

Endemic Goiter

Congenital hypothyroidism is thyroid hyposecretion present from birth it was formerly called cretinism, now regarded as an insensitive term. Severe or prolonged adult hypothyroidism can cause myxedema MIX-eh-DEE-muh . Both syndromes are described in table 17.8, and both can be treated with oral thyroid hormone. A goiter is any pathological enlargement of the thyroid gland. Endemic goiter fig. 17.25 is due to dietary Figure 17.25 Endemic Goiter. The thyroid gland has hypertrophied as a result of...

Body Cavities and Membranes

Pleural Pericardial Cavities

The body is internally divided into two major body cavities, dorsal and ventral fig. A.7 . The organs within them are called the viscera VISS-er-uh singular, viscus9 . Various membranes line the cavities, cover the viscera, and hold the viscera in place table A.2 . The dorsal body cavity has two subdivisions 1 the cranial CRAY-nee-ul cavity, which is enclosed by the cranium braincase and contains the brain, and 2 the verte bral canal, which is enclosed by the vertebral column backbone and...

Muscular Dystrophy and Myasthenia Gravis

Famous People With Myasthenia Gravis

Muscular dystrophy14 is a collective term for several hereditary diseases in which the skeletal muscles degenerate, lose strength, and are gradually replaced by adipose and fibrous tissue. This new connective tissue impedes blood circulation, which in turn accelerates muscle degeneration in a fatal spiral of positive feedback. The most common form of the disease is Duchenne15 muscular dystrophy DMD , caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. Like other sex-linked traits see chapter 4 , DMD is...

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae

Superior View Typical Vertebra

We are now prepared to consider how vertebrae differ from one region of the vertebral column to another and from the generalized anatomy just described. Knowing these variations will enable you to identify the region of the spine from which an isolated vertebra was taken. More importantly, these modifications in form reflect functional differences among the vertebrae. The cervical vertebrae C1-C7 are the smallest and lightest ones other than the coccygeals. The first two C1 and C2 have unique...

Senescence of the Organ Systems

Senescence Saladin

Organ systems do not all degenerate at the same rate. For example, from ages 30 to 80, the speed of nerve conduction declines only 10 to 15 , but the number of functional glomeruli in the kidneys declines about 60 . Some physiological functions show only moderate changes at rest but more pronounced differences when tested under exercise conditions. The organ systems also vary widely in the age at which senescence becomes noticeable. There are traces of atherosclerosis, for example, even in...

Size Shape and Position of the Heart

Frontal Section The Thoracic Cavity

The heart is located in the thoracic cavity in the mediastinum, the area between the lungs. About two-thirds of it lies to the left of the median plane fig. 19.2 . The broad superior portion of the heart, called the base, is the point of attachment for the great vessels described previously. Its inferior end, the apex, tilts to the left and tapers to a blunt point figs. 19.3 and 19.4 . The adult heart is about 9 cm 3.5 in. wide at the base, 13 cm 5 in. from base to apex, and 6 cm 2.5 in. from...

The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology

Medical Examination Cadaver History

Anatomy is the study of structure, and physiology is the study of function. These approaches are complementary and never entirely separable. When we study a structure, we want to know, What does it do Physiology lends meaning to anatomy and, conversely, anatomy is what makes physiology possible. This unity of form and function is an important point to bear in mind as you study the body. Many examples of it will be apparent throughout the book some of them pointed out for you, and others you...

Adjustments to Pregnancy

Positive Feedback Childbirth

Pregnancy places a considerable stress on a woman's body and requires adjustments in nearly all the organ systems. A few of the major adjustments and effects of pregnancy are described here. Digestive System, Nutrition, and Metabolism For many women, one of the first signs of pregnancy is morning sickness nausea, especially after rising from bed, in the first few months of gestation. The cause of morning sickness is unknown. One hypothesis is that it stems from the reduced intestinal motility...

Lymph and the Lymphatic Vessels

Heart Lymph System Capillaries

Lymph is usually a clear, colorless fluid, similar to blood plasma but low in protein. Its composition varies substantially from place to place. After a meal, for example, lymph draining from the small intestine has a milky appearance because of its high lipid content. Lymph leaving the lymph nodes contains a large number of lymphocytes indeed, this is the main supply of lymphocytes to the bloodstream. Saladin Anatomy amp I 21. The Lymphatic and I Text Physiology The Unity of Immune System Form...

Phases of the Cardiac Cycle

Phases And Events Cardiac Cycle

We now examine the phases of the cardiac cycle, the pressure changes that occur, and how the pressure changes and valves govern the flow of blood. A substantial amount of information about these events is summarized in figure 19.19, which is divided into colored bars numbered to correspond to the phases described here. Closely follow the figure as you study the following text. Where to begin when describing a circular chain of events is somewhat arbitrary. However, in this presentation we begin...

Visual Survey of the Body

Human Anatomy Diagram

Figures A.12 through A.16 provide an overview of the anatomy of the trunk and internal organs of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. Figures A.17 through A.22 are photographs of the cadaver showing the major organs of the dorsal and ventral body cavities. Figure A.10 Serous Membranes of the Abdominal Cavity. Sagittal section, left lateral view. Is the urinary bladder in the peritoneal cavity Saladin Anatomy amp I Atlas A General I Text I The McGraw-Hill Physiology The Unity of Orientation...

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

Occasionally, a girl shows all the usual changes of puberty except that she fails to menstruate. Physical examination shows the presence of testes in the abdomen and a karyotype reveals that she has the XY chromosomes of a male. The testes produce normal male levels of testosterone, but the target cells lack receptors for it. This is called androgen-insensitivity syndrome AIS , or testicular feminization. The external genitals develop female anatomy as if no testosterone were present. At...

Muscles Acting on the Knee

Physiology Gluteus Muscles

The following muscles form most of the mass of the thigh and produce their most obvious actions on the knee joint. Some of them, however, cross both the hip and knee joints and produce actions at both, moving the femur, tibia, and fibula table 10.18 . The anterior compartment of the thigh contains the large quadriceps femoris muscle, the prime mover of knee extension and the most powerful muscle of the body figs. 10.32 and 10.33 . As the name implies, it has four heads the rectus femoris,...

Bone Growth and Remodeling

Epiphyseal Plate Hand

Bones continue to grow and remodel themselves throughout life, changing size and shape to accommodate the changing forces applied to the skeleton. For example, in children the femurs become longer, the curvature of the cranium increases to accommodate a growing brain, and many bones develop surface bumps, spines, and ridges described in chapter 8 as a child begins to walk and the muscles exert tension on the bones. The prominence of these surface features and the density of bone depend on the...

Histology Anatomy Of Tooth

Salivary Acinar Cell

Central incisor-Lateral incisor Canine Figure 25.5 The Dentition and Ages at Which the Teeth Erupt. a Permanent teeth b deciduous baby teeth. Which teeth are absent from a 3-year-old child Figure 25.6 Permanent and Deciduous Teeth in a Child's Skull. This dissection shows erupted deciduous teeth and, below them and marked with asterisks, the permanent teeth waiting to erupt. Figure 25.6 Permanent and Deciduous Teeth in a Child's Skull. This dissection shows erupted deciduous teeth and, below...

Muscles Acting on the Foot

Babies Anterior View Leg Foot Veins

The fleshy mass of the leg proper below the knee is formed by a group of crural muscles, which act on the foot fig. 10.35 table 10.19 . These muscles are tightly bound together by deep fasciae, which compress them and aid in the return of blood from the legs. The fasciae separate the crural muscles into anterior, lateral, and posterior compartments, each with its own nerve and blood supply. Muscles of the anterior compartment dorsiflex the ankle and prevent the toes from scuffing the ground...

The Liver Gallbladder and Pancreas

Porta Hepatis Gross Anatomy

When you have completed this section, you should be able to describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the liver, gallbladder, bile duct system, and pancreas describe the digestive secretions and functions of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas and explain how hormones regulate secretions of the liver and pancreas. The small intestine receives not only chyme from the stomach but also secretions from the liver and pancreas, which enter the digestive tract near the junction of the stomach and...

Endocrine Functions of Other Organs

Several other organs have hormone-secreting cells The heart. High blood pressure stretches the heart wall and stimulates muscle cells in the atria to secrete atrial natriuretic22 peptide ANP . ANP increases sodium excretion and urine output and opposes the action of angiotensin II, described shortly. Together, these effects lower the blood pressure. The skin. Keratinocytes of the epidermis produce vitamin D3, the first step in the synthesis of calcitriol. Its synthesis is completed by the liver...