Visual Survey of the Body

Figures A.12 through A.16 provide an overview of the anatomy of the trunk and internal organs of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. Figures A.17 through A.22 are photographs of the cadaver showing the major organs of the dorsal and ventral body cavities.

Figure A.10 Serous Membranes of the Abdominal Cavity.

Sagittal section, left lateral view.

Is the urinary bladder in the peritoneal cavity?

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Stomach Water Retention Vulva

A.11a Integumentary system

Principal organs: Skin, hair, nails, cutaneous glands

Principal functions: Protection, water retention, thermoregulation, vitamin D synthesis, cutaneous sensation, nonverbal communication

Unity The Body

A.11b Skeletal system

Principal organs: Bones, cartilages, ligaments

Principal functions: Support, movement, protective enclosure of viscera, blood formation, electrolyte and acid-base balance

Retention Testis Anatomy

A.11c Muscular system

Principal organs: Skeletal muscles Principal functions: Movement, stability, communication, control of body openings, heat production

General Functions Digestion

A.11d Nervous system Principal organs: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia

Principal functions: Rapid internal communication and coordination, sensation

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Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy 41

Parathyroid Anatomy

A.11e Endocrine system

Principal organs: Pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries Principal functions: Internal chemical communication and coordination

Parathyroid And Thymus Glands

A.11/ Circulatory system

Principal organs: Heart, blood vessels Principal functions: Distribution of nutrients, oxygen, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, heat, immune cells, and antibodies; fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance

Brachial Lymph Nodes

A.11g Lymphatic system

Principal organs: Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils

Principal functions: Recovery of excess tissue fluid, detection of pathogens, production of immune cells, defense

Pharynx And Trachea

A.11h Respiratory system

Principal organs: Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Principal functions: Absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid-base balance, speech

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Female Body Anatomy

A.11Ï Urinary system

Principal organs: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra Principal functions: Elimination of wastes; regulation of blood volume and pressure; stimulation of red blood cell formation; control of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance; detoxification

Vulva Function

A.11/ Digestive system

Principal organs: Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas Principal functions: Nutrient breakdown and absorption; liver functions include metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, synthesis of plasma proteins, disposal of drugs, toxins, and hormones, and cleansing of blood

A.11& Male reproductive system

Principal organs: Testes, epididymides, spermatic ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis

Principal functions: Production and delivery of sperm

Pensis Glands Red

A.11i Female reproductive system

Principal organs: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands

Principal functions: Production of eggs, site of fertilization and fetal development, fetal nourishment, birth, lactation

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Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy 43

Platysma m. Trapezius m.

Clavicle

Deltoid m.-

Cephalic v.

Mammary gland -Biceps brachii m.

Surface Anatomy The Body

External abdominal ■ oblique m.

Inguinal ligament

Tensor fasciae latae m.

Sartorius m.

Femoral vein

Great saphenous vein

Vastus lateralis m.-

Rectus femoris m.

Anterior Saphenous Vein

Pectoralis major m.

Sheath of rectus abdominis m.

Umbilicus

Anterior superior spine of ilium

Mons pubis

Adductor longus m.

Gracilis m.

Figure A.12 Superficial Anatomy of the Trunk (female). Surface anatomy is shown on the anatomical left, and structures immediately deep to the skin on the right (m. = muscle; v. = vein).

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44 Part One Organization of the Body

Internal jugular v. External jugular v

Omohyoid m.

Clavicle

Internal intercostal mm

External intercostal mm

Costal cartilages

Liver

Gallbladder

External abdominal oblique m.

Internal abdominal oblique m.

Transversus abdominis m Greater omentum

Urinary bladder

Penis

Scrotum

Common carotid a.

Sternum

KIH Sub-

scapularis m.

Coraco-brachialis m.

Lung

Pericardium Pleura Diaphragm

Stomach

Internal jugular v. External jugular v

Costal cartilages

Liver

Gallbladder

Urinary bladder

Penis

Scrotum

Testis Femoral

Common carotid a.

Large intestine

Femoral n. Femoral a. Femoral v.

Large intestine

Femoral n. Femoral a. Femoral v.

Figure A.13 Anatomy at the Level of the Rib Cage and Greater Omentum (male). The anterior body wall is removed, and the ribs, intercostal muscles, and pleura are removed from the anatomical left (a. = artery; v. = vein; m. = muscle; n. = nerve).

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Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy 45

Thyroid cartilage of larynx Thyroid gland Brachial nerve plexus

Superior vena cava

Coraco-brachialis m

Humerus

Lobes of lung

Lobes of lung

Inferior Vena Cava Small Intestines

Brachio-cephalic v.

Subclavian v. Subclavian a.

Ascending aorta

Spleen

Stomach

Large intestine

Small intestine Cecum Appendix

Tensor fasciae latae m. Pectineus m.

Adductor longus m

Gracilis m. Adductor magnus m

Rectus femoris m.

Brachio-cephalic v.

Subclavian v. Subclavian a.

Ascending aorta

Axillary v.

Axillary a. Cephalic v. Brachial v. Brachial a.

Heart

Spleen

Stomach

Large intestine

Penis (cut)

Ductus deferens

Epididymis

Testis

Scrotum

Figure A.14 Anatomy at the Level of the Lungs and Intestines (male). The sternum, ribs, and greater omentum are removed (a. = artery; v. = vein; m. = muscle)

Name several viscera that are protected by the rib cage.

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Superior vena cava Bronchus

Esophagus

Pleural cavity

Hepatic vv Inferior vena cava Splenic a.

Duodenum

Superior mesenteric v

Superior vena cava Bronchus

Esophagus

Pleural cavity

Duodenum

Superior mesenteric v

Plexus Lumbalis Aorta

Trachea

Lung

(sectioned)

Thoracic aorta

Inferior mesenteric a.

Tensor fasciae latae m. (cut)

Sartorius m. (cut)

Adductor longus m

Trachea

Abdominal aorta

Common iliac a. Ureter Ovary

Uterine tube Uterus

Urinary bladder

Pectineus m. Gracilis m

Adductor longus m

Lung

(sectioned)

Thoracic aorta

Spleen

Adrenal gland Pancreas

Kidney

Superior mesenteric a.

Inferior mesenteric a.

Tensor fasciae latae m. (cut)

Sartorius m. (cut)

Rectus femoris m. (cut) Adductor brevis m.

Vastus intermedius m.

Adductor longus m. (cut)

Vastus lateralis m. Vastus medialis m.

Figure A.15 Anatomy at the Level of the Retroperitoneal Viscera (female). The heart is removed, the lungs are frontally sectioned, and the viscera of the peritoneal cavity and the peritoneum itself are removed (a. = artery; v. = vein; vv. = veins; m. = muscle).

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Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy 47

Human Anatomy Diagram

Figure A.16 Anatomy at the Level of the Dorsal Body Wall (female). The lungs and retroperitoneal viscera are removed (a. = artery; m. = muscle).

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48 Part One Organization of the Body

Scalp

Cranium

Frontal sinus

Nasal cavity

Palate Oral cavity

Tongue

Epiglottis Pharynx

Vocal cord Larynx

Trachea

Esophagus

Scalp

Cranium

Frontal sinus

Cerebellum Protected Skull

Brainstem Cerebellum

Foramen magnum of skull

Spinal cord

Vertebral column

Intervertebral discs

Brainstem Cerebellum

Foramen magnum of skull

Spinal cord

Vertebral column

Intervertebral discs

Figure A.17 Median Section of the Head. Shows contents of the cranial, nasal, and buccal cavities.

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Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy 49

Cadaver Subclavian Vein

Nerves

Internal jugular vein

■ Subclavian vein

Lungs

Ribs

Heart

Diaphragm

Nerves

Internal jugular vein

■ Subclavian vein

Lungs

Ribs

Heart

Diaphragm

Figure A. 1 8 Frontal View of the Thoracic Cavity.

Ventral

Pectoralis major muscle

Pericardial cavity

Ventricles of heart

Atria of heart Left lung

Pleural cavity

Ventral

Pleural cavity

Human Anatomy Sternum Fat

Fat of breast

Sternum

Ribs

Right lung Esophagus Aorta Vertebra Spinal cord

Dorsal

Fat of breast

Sternum

Ribs

Right lung Esophagus Aorta Vertebra Spinal cord

Dorsal

Sternum Ribs And The Spinal Column

Figure A.19 Transverse Section of the Thorax. Section taken at the level shown by the inset and oriented the same as the reader's body. In this section, which term best describes the position of the aorta relative to the heart: posterior, lateral, inferior, or proximal?

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition

50 Part One Organization of the Body

Diaphragm-

Transverse colon Gallbladder-

Small intestine

Mesenteric arteries and veins Mesentery Descending colon Cecum

Sigmoid colon

Mesentery Cadaver

Figure A.20 Frontal View of the Abdominal Cavity.

Transverse Section The Abdomen

Figure A.21 Transverse Section of the Abdomen. Section taken at the level shown by the inset and oriented the same as the reader's body. What tissue in this photograph is immediately superficial to the rectus abdominis muscle?

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition

Urinary bladder

Pubic symphysis

Seminal vesicle Prostate-

Penis Root -Bulb-

Shaft Corpus cavernosum

Corpus spongiosum

Urinary bladder

Pubic symphysis

Seminal vesicle Prostate-

Penis Root -Bulb-

Shaft Corpus cavernosum

Corpus spongiosum

Penis The Sigmoid Colon
Sigmoid colon

Rectum

Anal canal Anus

Epididymis Scrotum

Testis

Pelvic Cavity Child
Figure A.22 Median Sections of the Pelvic Cavity. Viewed from the left. (a) Male, (fa) Female.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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  • JANA GRUENEWALD
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