In late pregnancy, the mammary acini and ducts are distended with a secretion called colostrum. This is similar to breast milk in protein and lactose content but contains about one-third less fat. It is the infant's only natural source of nutrition for the first 1 to 3 days postpartum. Colostrum has a thin watery consistency and a cloudy yellowish color. The amount of colostrum secreted per day is at most 1% of the amount of milk secreted later, but since infants are born with excess body water and ample fat, high calorie and fluid intake are not required at first. A major benefit of colostrum is that it contains immunoglob-ulins, especially IgA. IgA resists digestion and may protect the infant from gastroenteritis. It is also thought to be pinocytosed by the small intestine and to confer wider, systemic immunity to the neonate.
Milk synthesis is promoted by prolactin, a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland. In the nonpregnant state, dopamine (= prolactin-inhibiting hormone) from the hypothalamus inhibits prolactin secretion. Prolactin secretion begins 5 weeks into the pregnancy, and by full term it is 10 to 20 times its normal level. Even so, prolactin has little effect on the mammary glands until after birth. While the steroids of pregnancy prepare the mammary glands for lactation, they antagonize prolactin and suppress milk synthesis. When the placenta is discharged at birth, the steroid levels abruptly drop and allow prolactin to have a stronger effect. Milk is synthesized in increasing quantity over the following week. Milk synthesis also requires the action of growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, and parathyroid hormone to mobilize the necessary amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, and calcium.
At the time of birth, baseline prolactin secretion drops to the nonpregnant level. Every time the infant nurses, however, it jumps to 10 to 20 times this level for the next hour and stimulates the synthesis of milk for the next feeding (fig. 28.22). These prolactin surges are accompanied by smaller increases in estrogen and progesterone secretion. If the mother does not nurse or these hormone surges are absent (due to pituitary damage, for example), the mammary glands stop producing milk in about a week. Even if she does nurse, milk production declines after 7 to 9 months.
Only 5% to 10% of women become pregnant again while nursing an infant full time. Apparently, either pro-lactin or nerve signals from the breast inhibit GnRH secretion, which, in turn, results in reduced gonadotropin
Prolactin surges during each breast-feeding
Figure 28.22 Prolactin Secretion in the Lactating Female.
secretion and ovarian cycling. This mechanism may have evolved as a natural means of spacing births, but breastfeeding is not a reliable means of contraception. Even in women who breast-feed, the ovarian cycle sometimes resumes several months postpartum. In those who do not breast-feed, the cycles resume in a few weeks, but for the first 6 months they are usually anovulatory.
Was this article helpful?