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Interactions Between the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and Other Organ Systems indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one

All Systems

The digestive system provides all other systems with nutrients in a form usable for cellular metabolism and building of tissues

Integumentary System

^^ Skin plays a role in the synthesis of calcitriol, needed for calcium and phosphorus absorption by the small intestine

Skeletal System

Small intestine adjusts calcium absorption in proportion to the needs of the skeletal system ^- Provides protective enclosure for some digestive organs, support for the teeth, and movements of mastication

Muscular System

Liver disposes of lactic acid generated by muscles, thus promoting recovery from fatigue ^^ Essential for chewing, swallowing, and voluntary control of defecation; abdominal muscles protect lower GI organs

Nervous System

^^ Enteric and autonomic nervous systems regulate GI motility and secretion; somatic nervous system controls chewing, swallowing, and defecation; sense organs involved in food selection and ingestion; hypothalamus contains centers for hunger, thirst, and satiety

Endocrine System

Liver degrades hormones; enteroendocrine cells produce many hormones

^- Hormones regulate GI motility, secretion, and processing of absorbed nutrients

Circulatory System

Digestive tract absorbs fluid needed to maintain blood volume; liver degrades heme from dead erythrocytes, secretes clotting factors, albumin, and other plasma proteins, and regulates blood glucose level; intestinal epithelium stores and releases iron as needed for erythropoiesis ^^ Blood transports hormones that regulate GI activity; absorbs and distributes nutrients; vasomotion alters capillary filtration and salivation

Lymphatic/Immune Systems

GI mucosa is a site of lymphocyte production; acid, lysozyme, and other digestive enzymes provide nonspecific defense against pathogens; infant intestine absorbs maternal IgA to confer passive immunity on infant ^- Lymphatic capillaries (lacteals) absorb digested lipids; immune cells protect GI tract from infection

Reabsorbed Fetus

Respiratory System

Pressure of digestive organs against diaphragm aids in expiration when abdominal muscles contract ^^ Provides O2, removes CO2; Valsalva maneuver aids defecation

Urinary System

Intestines complement kidneys in water and electrolyte reabsorption; liver carries out last step before kidneys in calcitriol synthesis; liver synthesizes urea and kidneys excrete it ^^ Excretes bile pigments and other products of liver metabolism; completes the synthesis of calcitriol, needed for intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus

Reproductive System

Provides nutrients for fetal growth ^- Developing fetus crowds digestive organs; may cause constipation and heartburn during pregnancy

Saladin: Anatomy & I 25. The Digestive System I Text I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

980 Part Four Regulation and Maintenance

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