Energy and Chemical Reactions


When you have completed this section, you should be able to:

• define energy and work, and describe some types of energy;

• understand how chemical reactions are symbolized by chemical equations;

• list and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions;

• identify the factors that govern the speed and direction of a reaction;

• define metabolism and its two subdivisions; and

• define oxidation and reduction and relate these to changes in the energy content of a molecule.

Insight 2.2 Clinical Application pH and Drug Action

The pH of our body fluids has a direct bearing on how we react to drugs. Depending on pH, drugs such as aspirin, phenobarbital, and penicillin can exist in charged (ionized) or uncharged forms. Whether a drug is charged or not can determine whether it will pass through cell membranes. When aspirin is in the acidic environment of the

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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