Hyposecretion and Hypersecretion

Inadequate hormone release is called hyposecretion. It can result from tumors or lesions that destroy an endocrine gland or interfere with its ability to receive signals from another gland. For example, a fractured sphenoid bone can sever the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract and thus prevent the transport of oxytocin and antidi-uretic hormone to the posterior pituitary. The resulting ADH hyposecretion disables the water-conserving capability of the kidneys and leads to diabetes insipidus, a condition of chronic polyuria without glucose in the urine. (Insipidus means "without taste" and refers to the lack of sweetness of the glucose-free urine, in contrast to the sugary urine of diabetes mellitus.) Autoimmune diseases can also lead to hormone hyposecretion when misguided antibodies (autoantibodies) attack endocrine cells. This is thought to be one of the causes of diabetes mellitus, as explained shortly.

Excessive hormone release, called hypersecretion, has multiple causes. Some tumors result in the overgrowth of functional endocrine tissue. A pheochromocytoma (FEE-o-CRO-mo-sy-TOE-muh), for example, is a tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes excessive amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine (table 17.8). Some tumors in nonendocrine organs produce hormones. For example, some lung tumors secrete ACTH and thus over-stimulate cortisol secretion by the adrenal gland. While certain autoimmune disorders can cause endocrine hyposecretion, others cause hypersecretion. An example of this is toxic goiter (Graves25 disease), in which autoan-

25Robert James Graves (1796-1853), Irish physician

Saladin: Anatomy & I 17. The Endocrine System I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

Chapter 17 The Endocrine System 667

Chapter 17 The Endocrine System 667

Same Person Different Ages Pictures
Figure 17.24 Acromegaly, a Condition Caused by Growth Hormone Hypersecretion in Adulthood. These are four photographs of the same person taken at different ages. Note the characteristic thickening of the face and hands. How would she have been affected if GH hypersecretion began at age 9?

tibodies mimic the effect of TSH on the thyroid, causing thyroid hypersecretion (table 17.8). Endocrine hypersecretion disorders can also be mimicked by excess or long-term clinical administration of hormones such as cortisol.

Following are brief descriptions of some of the better-known disorders of the major endocrine glands. Table 17.8 provides further details on some of these and lists some additional endocrine disorders. Diabetes mellitus, by far the most prevalent endocrine disease, receives a more extended discussion.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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Responses

  • bowman
    How would she has been affected if gh hypersecretion began at age 9?
    7 years ago
  • NINA BRUCE
    Is mellitus hypersecretion or hyposecretion?
    7 years ago
  • ALEXANDER AMSEL
    What disease is resulted by hypersecretion or hyposecretion of epinephrine?
    4 years ago
  • Roy
    What are the hyposecreation and hypersecretion effects for ovaries in endocrine glands?
    1 year ago
  • florence
    Is estrogen hypersecretion or hyposecretion?
    1 year ago
  • KIM
    What is hyposecretion of a hormone?
    1 year ago
  • Ferruccio
    What is hypo secretion and hyper secretion?
    12 months ago
  • simon
    Is hyposecretion the same as addisons disease?
    6 months ago
  • ORLANDO
    Is pcos caused by hypersecretion or hyposecretion?
    6 months ago
  • john
    What is the outcome for hyposecretion of epinephrine hormone?
    3 months ago
  • rebecca
    What causes hypersecretion of oxytocin?
    3 months ago
  • Medhanit Kinfe
    How hypo and hypersecretion of oestrogen is treated?
    29 days ago
  • joel
    Which of the following conditions results from hyposecretion of the thyroid gland in an adult?
    22 days ago
  • MARCELINE
    What conditions can result from hyposecretion/hypersecretion of melatonin?
    10 days ago

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