Interactions Between the Endocrine System and Other Organ Systems

indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one

All Systems

Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, insulin, thyroid hormone, and glucocorticoids affect the development and metabolism of most tissues

Integumentary System

Sex hormones affect skin pigmentation, development of body hair and apocrine glands, and subcutaneous fat deposition ^^ Skin carries out a step in calcitriol (vitamin D) synthesis

Skeletal System

Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, calcitriol, growth hormone, thyroid hormone, sex steroids, and other hormones affect bone development

^^ Protects some endocrine glands; stores calcium needed for endocrine function

Muscular System

Growth hormone and testosterone stimulate muscular growth; insulin regulates carbohydrate metabolism in muscle; other hormones affect electrolyte balance, which is critical to muscle function

^^ Skeletal muscles protect some endocrine glands

Nervous System

Exerts negative feedback inhibition on hypothalamus; several hormones affect nervous system development, mood, and behavior; hormones regulate electrolyte balance, which is critical to neuron function ^^ Hypothalamus regulates secretion of anterior pituitary hormones and synthesizes the posterior pituitary hormones; sympathetic nervous system triggers secretion by adrenal medulla

Circulatory System

Angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide regulate blood volume and pressure; epinephrine, thyroid hormone, and other hormones affect heart rate and contraction force ^^ Blood transports hormones to their target organs; blood pressure and osmolarity variations trigger secretion of some hormones

Lymphatic/Immune Systems

Thymosin and other hormones activate immune cells; glucocorticoids suppress immunity and inflammation ^- Lymphatic system maintains fluid balance in endocrine glands; lymphocytes protect endocrine glands from infection

Atrial Natriuretic Hormone

Respiratory System

Epinephrine and norepinephrine increase pulmonary airflow ^^ Provides O2 and removes CO2; lungs convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II

Urinary System

Antidiuretic hormone regulates water excretion; parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and aldosterone regulate electrolyte excretion ^^ Disposes of wastes and maintains electrolyte and pH balance; degrades and excretes hormones

Digestive System

Parathyroid hormone affects intestinal calcium absorption; insulin and glucagon modulate nutrient storage and metabolism; several enteric hormones regulate gastrointestinal secretion and motility ^^ Provides nutrients; nutrient absorption triggers insulin secretion; gut-brain peptides act on hypothalamus and stimulate specific hungers; liver degrades and excretes hormones

Reproductive System

Gonadotropins and sex steroids regulate sexual development, sperm and egg production, sex drive, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, fetal development, and lactation ^^ Sex hormones inhibit secretion by hypothalamus and pituitary gland

Saladin: Anatomy & I 17. The Endocrine System I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

674 Part Three Integration and Control

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