indicates ways in which these systems affect other organ systems indicates ways in which other organ systems affect these systems
^^ Skin provides mechanical and chemical barriers to pathogens; has antigen-presenting cells in epidermis and dermis; and is a common site of inflammation
^^ Lymphocytes and macrophages arise from bone marrow cells; skeleton protects thymus and spleen
^- Skeletal muscle pump moves lymph through lymphatic vessels Nervous System
Lymph transports some hormones ^- Hormones from thymus stimulate development of lymphatic organs and T cells; stress hormones depress immunity and increase susceptibility to infection and cancer
Cardiovascular system would soon fail without return of fluid and protein by lymphatic system; spleen disposes of expired erythrocytes and recycles iron; lymphatic organs prevent accumulation of debris and pathogens in blood ^^ Lymphatic vessels develop from embryonic veins; arterial pulsation aids flow of lymph in neighboring lymphatic vessels; leukocytes serve in nonspecific and specific defense; blood transports immune cells, antibodies, complement, interferon, and other immune chemicals; capillary endothelial cells signal areas of tissue injury and stimulate margination and diapedesis of leukocytes; blood clotting restricts spread of pathogens
Absorbs fluid and proteins in kidneys, which is essential to enabling kidneys to concentrate the urine and conserve water ^^ Eliminates waste and maintains fluid and electrolyte balance important to lymphatic and immune function; urine flushes some pathogens from body; acidic pH of urine protects against urinary tract infection
Lymph absorbs and transports digested lipids ^^ Nourishes lymphatic system and affects lymph composition; stomach acid destroys ingested pathogens
Saladin: Anatomy & I 21. The Lymphatic and I Text I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Unity of Immune System Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition
Chapter 21 The Lymphatic and Immune Systems 835
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