Interactions Between the Reproductive System and Other Organ Systems

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indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one

Integumentary System

At puberty, androgens stimulate development of body hair and apocrine glands and increased sebaceous secretion; estrogens stimulate fat deposition and breast development in females; pregnancy may cause pigmentation changes and stretch marks ^^ Sensory stimulation of skin important to sexual arousal; mammary glands nourish infant

Skeletal System

Androgens and estrogens stimulate adolescent skeletal growth; estrogens maintain bone mass in females ^^ Encloses and protects pelvic organs; provides minerals for fetal growth and lactation; narrow pelvic outlet makes childbirth difficult

Muscular System

Gonadal steroids stimulate muscle growth ^^ Muscles of pelvic floor support reproductive organs, aid erection of penis and clitoris, and function in orgasm; abdominal muscles aid in childbirth; cremaster muscle helps maintain temperature of testes

Nervous System

Androgens stimulate libido; hormones from gonads and placenta exert negative feedback control on hypothalamus ^^ Hypothalamus initiates gonadotropin function and lactation

Endocrine System

Gonads and placenta are part of endocrine system and exert feedback control on anterior pituitary ^^ Hormones regulate puberty, gametogenesis, libido, pregnancy, lactation, and climacteric

Circulatory System

Androgens stimulate erythropoiesis; estrogens may inhibit development of atherosclerosis in females; pregnancy increases blood volume and cardiac output and sometimes causes varicose veins

^^ Changes in blood flow produce vasocongestion and erection in sexual arousal; blood distributes sex hormones, transports nutrients to fetus, and removes fetal wastes; pampiniform plexus prevents overheating of testes

Lymphatic/Immune Systems

Blood-testis barrier isolates sperm and protects them from immune system

^^ Testes, scrotum, and breasts have extensive lymphatic drainage; immune cells protect reproductive organs; IgA in colostrum and breast milk confers passive immunity on neonate

Organ Systems

Respiratory System

Sexual arousal increases pulmonary ventilation; pregnancy reduces depth of inspiration but increases respiratory rate ^^ Provides O2, removes CO2; Valsalva maneuver aids childbirth

Urinary System

Sexual arousal constricts internal urinary sphincter; prostatic hyperplasia may impede urine flow; pregnancy crowds urinary bladder and often causes incontinence ^^ Disposes of wastes, maintains electrolyte and pH balance of mother and fetus; urethra serves as passageway for semen

Digestive System

Fetus crowds digestive organs, thus contributing to heartburn and constipation

^^ Provides nutrients for gametogenesis and fetal development

Saladin: Anatomy & I 28. The Female I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Reproductive System Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition

Chapter 28 The Female Reproductive System 1083

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  • Max
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