indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one
At puberty, androgens stimulate development of body hair and apocrine glands and increased sebaceous secretion; estrogens stimulate fat deposition and breast development in females; pregnancy may cause pigmentation changes and stretch marks ^^ Sensory stimulation of skin important to sexual arousal; mammary glands nourish infant
Androgens and estrogens stimulate adolescent skeletal growth; estrogens maintain bone mass in females ^^ Encloses and protects pelvic organs; provides minerals for fetal growth and lactation; narrow pelvic outlet makes childbirth difficult
Gonadal steroids stimulate muscle growth ^^ Muscles of pelvic floor support reproductive organs, aid erection of penis and clitoris, and function in orgasm; abdominal muscles aid in childbirth; cremaster muscle helps maintain temperature of testes
Gonads and placenta are part of endocrine system and exert feedback control on anterior pituitary ^^ Hormones regulate puberty, gametogenesis, libido, pregnancy, lactation, and climacteric
^^ Changes in blood flow produce vasocongestion and erection in sexual arousal; blood distributes sex hormones, transports nutrients to fetus, and removes fetal wastes; pampiniform plexus prevents overheating of testes
Blood-testis barrier isolates sperm and protects them from immune system
^^ Testes, scrotum, and breasts have extensive lymphatic drainage; immune cells protect reproductive organs; IgA in colostrum and breast milk confers passive immunity on neonate
Sexual arousal increases pulmonary ventilation; pregnancy reduces depth of inspiration but increases respiratory rate ^^ Provides O2, removes CO2; Valsalva maneuver aids childbirth
Sexual arousal constricts internal urinary sphincter; prostatic hyperplasia may impede urine flow; pregnancy crowds urinary bladder and often causes incontinence ^^ Disposes of wastes, maintains electrolyte and pH balance of mother and fetus; urethra serves as passageway for semen
^^ Provides nutrients for gametogenesis and fetal development
Saladin: Anatomy & I 28. The Female I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Unity of Reproductive System Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition
Chapter 28 The Female Reproductive System 1083
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