indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one
^^ Nasal guard hairs reduce inhalation of dust and other foreign matter
^^ Thoracic cage protects lungs; movement of ribs produces pressure changes that ventilate lungs
^^ Skeletal muscles ventilate lungs, control position of larynx during swallowing, control vocal cords during speech; exercise strongly stimulates respiration because of the CO2 generated by active muscles
^^ Produces the respiratory rhythm, monitors blood gases and pH, monitors stretching of lungs; phrenic, intercostal, and other nerves control respiratory muscles
Lungs produce angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which converts angiotensin I to the hormone angiotensin II ^^ Epinephrine and norepinephrine dilate bronchioles and stimulate ventilation
Regulates blood pH; thoracic pump aids in venous return; lungs produce blood platelets; production of angiotensin II by lungs is important in control of blood volume and pressure; obstruction of pulmonary circulation leads to right-sided heart failure
^- Blood transports O2 and CO2; mitral stenosis or left-sided heart failure can cause pulmonary edema; emboli from peripheral sites often lodge in lungs
Valsalva maneuver aids in emptying bladder ^^ Disposes of wastes from respiratory organs; collaborates with lungs in controlling blood pH
Valsalva maneuver aids in defecation ^^ Provides nutrients for growth and maintenance of respiratory system
Saladin: Anatomy & I 22. The Respiratory System I Text I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition
874 Part Four Regulation and Maintenance
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.