The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology 2
• Physiology—The Study of Function 3
The Origins of Biomedical Science 3
• The Beginnings of Medicine 3
• The Birth of Modern Medicine 3
• Living in a Revolution 6
Scientific Method 7
• The Inductive Method 7
• The Hypothetico-Deductive Method 7
• Experimental Design 7
Human Origins and Adaptations 9
• Evolution, Selection, and Adaptation 9
• Primate Adaptations 10
• Walking Upright 11
Human Structure 12
• The Hierarchy of Complexity 12
• Anatomical Variation 14
Human Function 14
• Characteristics of Life 14
• Physiological Variation 16
• Homeostasis and Negative Feedback 17
• Positive Feedback and Rapid Change 18
The Language of Medicine 19
• The History of Anatomical Terminology 19
• Analyzing Medical Terms 20
• Singular and Plural Forms 21
• The Importance of Precision 21
Review of Major Themes 21 Chapter Review 25
Evolutionary Medicine: Vestiges of Human Evolution 10 Clinical Application: Situs Inversus and Other Unusual Anatomy 14
Medical History: Men in the
Medical History: Obscure Word Origins 20
Clinical Application: Medical Imaging 22
Saladin: Anatomy & I 1. Major Themes of I Text
Physiology: The Unity of Anatomy and Physiology Form and Function, Third Edition
No branch of science hits as close to home as the science of our own bodies. We're grateful for the dependability of our hearts; we're awed by the capabilities of muscles and joints displayed by Olympic athletes; and we ponder with philosophers the ancient mysteries of mind and emotion. We want to know how our body works, and when it malfunctions, we want to know what is happening and what we can do about it. Even the most ancient writings of civilization include medical documents that attest to humanity's timeless drive to know itself. You are embarking on a subject that is as old as civilization, yet one that grows by thousands of scientific publications every week.
This book is an introduction to human structure and function, the biology of the human body. It is meant primarily to give you a foundation for advanced study in health care, exercise physiology, pathology, and other fields related to health and fitness. Beyond that purpose, however, it can also provide you with a deeply satisfying sense of self-understanding.
As rewarding and engrossing as this subject is, the human body is highly complex and a knowledge of it requires us to comprehend a great deal of detail. The details will be more manageable if we relate them to a few broad, unifying concepts. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to introduce such concepts and put the rest of the book into perspective. We consider the historical development of anatomy and physiology, the thought processes that led to the knowledge in this book, the meaning of human life, and a central concept of physiology called homeostasis.
The Preface to Students describes some ways in which this book and its companion materials can be used to learn this subject most effectively. If you haven't already read it, I urge you to do so before continuing.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.