The human body has 11 organ systems (fig. A.11) and an immune system, which is better described as a population of cells than as an organ system. These systems are classified in the following list by their principal functions, but this is an unavoidably flawed classification. Some organs belong to two or more systems—for example, the male urethra is part of both the urinary and reproductive systems; the pharynx is part of the respiratory and digestive systems; and the mammary glands can be considered part of the integumentary and female reproductive systems.
Protection, Support, and Movement
Integumentary system Skeletal system Muscular system
Internal Communication and Integration
Nervous system Endocrine system
Saladin: Anatomy & I Atlas A General I Text I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Unity of Orientation to Human Companies, 2003
Form and Function, Third Anatomy Edition
Figure A.10 Serous Membranes of the Abdominal Cavity.
Sagittal section, left lateral view.
Is the urinary bladder in the peritoneal cavity?
Parietal peritoneum Peritoneal cavity Urinary bladder
Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy 39
Circulatory system Lymphatic system
Input and Output
Respiratory system Urinary system Digestive system
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