Prostate Diseases

The prostate gland weighs about 20 g by age 20, remains at that weight until age 45 or so, and then begins to grow slowly again. By age 70, over 90% of men show some degree of benign prostatic hyperplasia-noncancerous enlargement of the gland. The major complication of this is that it compresses the urethra, obstructs the flow of urine, and may promote bladder and kidney infections.

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men (after lung cancer), affecting about 9% of men over the age of 50. Prostate tumors tend to form near the periphery of the gland, where they do not obstruct urine flow; therefore, they often go unnoticed until they cause pain. Prostate cancer often metastasizes to nearby lymph nodes and then to the lungs and other organs. It is more common among American blacks than whites and very uncommon among Japanese. It is diagnosed by digital rectal examination and by detecting prostate specific antigen (PSA) and acid phosphatase (a prostatic enzyme) in the blood. Up to 80% of men with prostate cancer survive when it is detected and treated early, but only 10% to 50% survive if it spreads beyond the prostatic capsule.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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