The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology
1. Human anatomy, or structure, is studied at gross and microscopic (histological) levels.
2. The methods of anatomy include dissection, palpation, and imaging techniques such as X rays, sonography, and CT, PET, and MRI scans.
3. Human physiology, or function, is studied by experimental methods, and often by comparison to other species.
The Origins of Biomedical Science (p. 3)
1. Hippocrates and Aristotle first put medicine on a scientific basis by distinguishing natural causes from the supernatural.
2. Galen wrote the first notable medical textbook, which dominated western medicine for 1,500 years.
3. In the Middle Ages, Avicenna and other Muslims were largely responsible for the survival of medical science.
4. In the sixteenth century, revolutionary work in anatomy by Vesalius and in physiology by Harvey created a foundation for modern medicine.
Scientific Method (p. 7)
1. Philosophers Bacon and Descartes first established a systematic scientific way of thought.
2. The inductive method, common in anatomy, consists of generalizing about nature from numerous observations.
3. The hypothetico-deductive method, common in physiology, consists of formulating hypotheses and testing them by carefully crafted observational strategies.
4. The objectivity of medical science depends on experimental designs that include an adequate sample size, experimental controls such as placebos and the double-blind method, statistical analysis of the significance of the data, and peer review by other experts.
5. Science generates facts, laws, and theories. Theories are summations of our present knowledge of natural phenomena and are the basis of much of our study in anatomy and physi°l°gy.
Human Origins and Adaptations (p. 9)
1. Human form and function have been shaped by millions of years of natural selection.
2. Many aspects of anatomy and physiology today, such as stereoscopic vision and opposable thumbs, are adaptations to the environments in which our prehistoric ancestors lived, including the arboreal and grassland habitats of Africa.
3. Evolutionary medicine is the analysis of human form, function, and disease in light of the evolutionary history of the human body.
Human Structure (p. 12)
1. Human structure is organized around a hierarchy of complexity. Levels of human complexity from most complex to simplest are organism, organ systems, organs, tissues, cells, organelles, molecules, and atoms.
2. Introductory textbooks teach only the most common human structure, but there are many variations in both internal and external anatomy.
Human Function (p. 14)
1. Life can be defined only as a collection of properties including organization, cellular composition, metabolism, excretion, responsiveness, movement, homeostasis, development, reproduction, and evolution.
2. For clinical purposes, life and legal death are differentiated on the basis of brain waves, reflexes, respiration, and heartbeat.
3. Humans vary greatly in their physiology. Data given in introductory and general textbooks are typically based on a young adult reference male and reference female.
4. An important unifying theory in physiology is homeostasis, mechanisms of maintaining internal constancy in spite of environmental change. Homeostasis keeps such variables as blood pressure and body temperature within a narrow range of an average called the set point.
5. Homeostasis is maintained by self-correcting chain reactions called negative feedback. This often involves detection of a change by a receptor, processing of this information by an integrating center, and reversal of the change by an effector.
6. Positive feedback is a self-amplifying chain of events that tends to produce rapid change in the body. It can be valuable in such cases as childbirth and blood clotting, but is often a cause of dysfunction and death.
The Language of Medicine (p. 19)
1. Anatomists the world over adhere to a lexicon of standard international terms called the Terminologia Anatomica (TA). Anatomy students must learn many Latin or English TA terms.
2. Biomedical terms can usually be simplified by breaking them down into familiar roots, prefixes, and suffixes. The habit of analyzing words in this way can greatly ease the difficulty of learning biomedical vocabulary, and is aided by footnotes throughout this book.
3. Precision in medical language is highly important. What may seem to be trivial spelling errors can radically change the meaning of a word, potentially causing dangerous medical errors.
Saladin: Anatomy & I 1. Major Themes of I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Unity of Anatomy and Physiology Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition
26 Part One Organization of the Body
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.