Table 204 Arterial Supply to the Head and Neck

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Origins of the Head-Neck Arteries

The head and neck receive blood from four pairs of arteries (fig. 20.22):

1. The common carotid arteries. The brachiocephalic trunk divides shortly after leaving the aortic arch and gives rise to the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. The left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. The common carotids pass up the anterolateral aspect of the neck, alongside the trachea.

2. The vertebral arteries arise from the right and left subclavian arteries. Each travels up the neck through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae and enters the cranial cavity through the foramen magnum.

3. The thyrocervical11 trunks are tiny arteries that arise from the subclavian arteries lateral to the vertebral arteries; they supply the thyroid gland and some scapular muscles.

4. The costocervical12 trunks (also illustrated in table 20.6) arise from the subclavian arteries a little farther laterally. They perfuse the deep neck muscles and some of the intercostal muscles of the superior rib cage.

Continuation of the Common Carotid Arteries

The common carotid arteries have the most extensive distribution of all the head-neck arteries. Near the laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple), each common carotid branches into an external carotid artery and an internal carotid artery:

1. The external carotid artery ascends the side of the head external to the cranium and supplies most external head structures except the orbits. The external carotid gives rise to the following arteries, in ascending order:

a. the superior thyroid artery to the thyroid gland and larynx, b. the lingual artery to the tongue,

Anterior communicating a.

Superficial temporal a.

Posterior auricular a Occipital a Basilar a

Internal carotid a External carotid a Carotid sinus Vertebral a

Thyrocervical trunk

Subclavian a.

Superficial temporal a.

Posterior auricular a Occipital a Basilar a

Thyrocervical trunk

Subclavian a.

Vertebral Basilar Ischemia

Ophthalmic a.

Maxillary a.

Facial a.

Lingual a.

Superior thyroid a.

Common carotid a.

Brachiocephalic trunk

Figure 20.22 Arteries Supplying the Head and Neck.

List the arteries, in order, that an erythrocyte must travel to get from the left ventricle to the skin of the forehead.

Arterial circle

Ophthalmic a.

Maxillary a.

Facial a.

Lingual a.

Superior thyroid a.

Common carotid a.

Brachiocephalic trunk

Anterior communicating a.

Arterial circle

Costocervical Trunk Subclavian Artery

Thyrocervical trunk

Costocervical trunk

L. subclavian a.

Ophthalmic a. Middle cerebral a. Internal cartoid aa. Posterior communicating a. Posterior cerebral a. Cerebellar aa.

Superficial temporal a. Maxillary a. Occipital a. ™— Facial a. Lingual a. Superior thyroid a.

Thyrocervical trunk

Costocervical trunk

L. subclavian a.

Figure 20.22 Arteries Supplying the Head and Neck.

List the arteries, in order, that an erythrocyte must travel to get from the left ventricle to the skin of the forehead.

11thyro = thyroid gland + cerv = neck

12costo = rib

Saladin: Anatomy & I 20. The Circulatory System: I Text I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Blood Vessels and Companies, 2003

Form and Function, Third Circulation Edition

772 Part Four Regulation and Maintenance

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Responses

  • Kathrin Strauss
    Where is the carotid sinus on a human?
    8 years ago
  • Keijo
    What are 4 paired arteries of the head and neck?
    3 months ago

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