Major Branches of Abdominal Aorta
After passing through the aortic hiatus, the aorta descends through the abdominal cavity. The abdominal aorta is retroperitoneal. It gives off arteries in the order listed here (fig. 20.26). Those indicated in the plural are paired right and left, and those indicated in the singular are single median arteries:
1. The inferior phrenic arteries supply the inferior surface of diaphragm and issue a small superior suprarenal artery to each adrenal (suprarenal) gland.
2. The celiac19 (SEE-lee-ac) trunk issues several branches to the upper abdominal viscera, further traced later in this table.
3. The superior mesenteric artery supplies the intestines (see mesenteric circulation later in this table).
4. The middle suprarenal arteries arise on either side of the superior mesenteric artery and supply the adrenal glands.
5. The renal arteries supply the kidneys and issue a small inferior suprarenal artery to each adrenal gland.
6. The gonadal arteries are long, narrow, winding arteries that descend from the midabdominal region to the female pelvic cavity or male scrotum. They are called the ovarian arteries in females and testicular arteries in males. The gonads begin their embryonic development near the kidneys. These arteries acquire their peculiar length and course by growing to follow the gonads as they descend to the pelvic cavity during fetal development.
10. The common iliac arteries arise as the aorta forks at its inferior end. They supply the lower abdominal wall, pelvic viscera (chiefly the urinary and reproductive organs), and lower limbs. They are further traced in table 20.8.
The celiac circulation to the upper abdominal viscera is perhaps the most complex route off the abdominal aorta. Because it has numerous anastomoses, the bloodstream does not follow a simple linear path but divides and rejoins itself at several points (fig. 20.27). As you study the following description,
Saladin: Anatomy & I 20. The Circulatory System: I Text I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Unity of Blood Vessels and Companies, 2003
Form and Function, Third Circulation Edition
Chapter 20 The Circulatory System: Blood Vessels and Circulation 777
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