Table 208 Arterial Supply to the Pelvic Region and Lower Limb continued

Branches of the External Iliac Artery

The external iliac artery sends branches to the skin and muscles of the abdominal wall and pelvic girdle. It then passes deep to the inguinal ligament and gives rise to branches that serve mainly the lower limbs:

1. The femoral artery passes through the femoral triangle of the upper medial thigh, where its pulse can be palpated. It gives off the following branches to supply the thigh region:

a. The deep femoral artery, which supplies the hamstring muscles; and b. The circumflex femoral arteries, which encircle the neck of the femur and supply the femur and hamstring muscles.

2. The popliteal artery is a continuation of the femoral artery in the popliteal fossa at the rear of the knee. It produces anastomoses (genicular arteries) that supply the knee and then divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.

3. The anterior tibial artery travels lateral to the tibia in the anterior compartment of the leg, where it supplies the extensor muscles. It gives rise to a. the dorsal pedal artery, which traverses the ankle and dorsum of the foot; and b. the arcuate artery, a continuation of the dorsal pedal artery that gives off the metatarsal arteries of the foot.

4. The posterior tibial artery travels through the posteromedial part of the leg and supplies the flexor muscles. It gives rise to a. the fibular (peroneal) artery, which arises from the proximal end of the posterior tibial artery and supplies the lateral peroneal muscles;

b. the lateral and medial plantar arteries, which arise by bifurcation of the posterior tibial artery at the ankle and supply the plantar surface of the foot; and c. the plantar arch, an anastomosis from the lateral plantar artery to the dorsal pedal artery that gives rise to the digital arteries of the toes.

Planter Region Blood Supply

Figure 20.30 Arterial Flowchart of the Lower Limb.

What arteries of the wrist and hand are most comparable to the arcuate artery and plantar arch of the foot?

Figure 20.30 Arterial Flowchart of the Lower Limb.

What arteries of the wrist and hand are most comparable to the arcuate artery and plantar arch of the foot?

Saladin: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition

Chapter 20 The Circulatory System: Blood Vessels and Circulation 781

In some places, major arteries come close enough to the body surface to be palpated. These places can be used to take a pulse, and they can serve as emergency pressure points where firm pressure can be applied to temporarily reduce arterial bleeding (fig. 20.31a). One of these points is the femoral triangle of the upper medial thigh (fig. 20.31fc, c). This is an important landmark for arterial supply, venous drainage, and innervation of the lower limb. Its boundaries are the sartorius muscle laterally, the inguinal ligament superiorly, and the adductor longus muscle medially. The femoral artery, vein, and nerve run close to the surface at this point.

Before You Go On

Answer the following questions to test your understanding of the preceding section:

25. Concisely contrast the destinations of the external and internal carotid arteries.

26. Briefly state the tissues that are supplied with blood by (a) the arterial circle, (b) the celiac trunk, (c) the superior mesenteric artery, and (d) the external iliac artery.

27. Trace the path of an RBC from the left ventricle to the metatarsal arteries. State two places along this path where you can palpate the arterial pulse.

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