Think About It

Does lactic acid have more free energy than pyruvic acid or less? Explain.

Most ATP is generated in the mitochondria, which require oxygen as the final electron acceptor. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvic acid enters the mitochondria and is oxidized by aerobic respiration. This occurs in two principal steps:

• a group of reactions we will call the matrix reactions, because their controlling enzymes are in the fluid of the mitochondrial matrix; and

• reactions we will call the membrane reactions, because their controlling enzymes are bound to the membranes of the mitochondrial cristae.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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