Infection of the urinary bladder is called cystitis.30 It is especially common in females because bacteria such as Escherichia coli can travel easily from the perineum up the short urethra. Because of this risk, young girls should be taught never to wipe the anus in a forward direction. If cystitis is untreated, bacteria can spread up the ureters and cause pyelitis,31 infection of the renal pelvis. If it reaches the renal cortex and nephrons, it is called pyelonephritis. Kidney infections can also result from invasion by blood-borne bacteria. Urine stagnation due to renal calculi or prostate enlargement increases the risk of infection.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.