Whats

I've been cautious about reorganizing the book and tampering with a structure that has been responsible for its success. Nevertheless, the voices of many reviewers have convinced me that a few changes were in order.

Changes in Chapter Sequence

I made two changes in chapter sequencing and numbering:

Saladin: Anatomy & I Front Matter I Preface I I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition xii Preface

Nervous System Chapters

The most frequent request has been to give the autonomic nervous system a chapter of its own, with slightly deeper coverage. I have done so at chapter 15. Another common request I've accommodated has been to discuss the spinal cord and spinal nerves together in one chapter (now chapter 13) and the brain and cranial nerves together in another (now chapter 14).

Chemistry

To compensate for the added nervous system chapter without making the book longer, and because many reviewers felt that the book could do without two full chapters of chemistry, I condensed the coverage of chemistry by about 25% and combined the two former chemistry chapters into one (now chapter 2). This results in a change of chapter numbers from 3 through 15, but from chapter 16 to the end, the numbers are the same as in the previous editions.

Changes in Chapter Organization

In three cases, I felt that a subject could be presented more effectively by rearrangements and content substitutions within a chapter. Other chapters continue to be organized as they were in the second edition.

Chapter 1, Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

Here I replaced the section on human taxonomic classification with sections on anatomical and physiological variability. This gives the chapter a less zoological and more clinical flavor. Also, I feel it is important at the outset of such a course to instill a sense of the familiar roots of biomedical terms, the importance of precision in spelling, and other aspects of vocabulary. Thus I moved the former appendix B, which introduced students to medical etymology, to chapter 1 ("The Language of Medicine," p. 19).

Chapter 17, The Endocrine System

As many reviewers desired, I have separated endocrine pathology from normal physiology and placed the pathology at the end of the chapter.

Chapter 21, The Lymphatic and Immune Systems

I have found it more effective to present cellular immunity before humoral immunity, since humoral immunity depends on some concepts such as helper T cells usually introduced in the context of cellular immunity.

Content Changes

I have strengthened the coverage of the following topics (indicating chapter numbers in parentheses): mitochondrial diseases (3), autoimmune diseases (5), the stages of hair growth (6), biomechanics of bone tissue (7), the enteric nervous system (15), receptive fields of sensory neurons (16), hormone-transport proteins (17), the blood-thymus barrier (21), clonal deletion and anergy (21), renal autoregulation (23), lipostats and leptin (26), and the trisomies (29).

I have updated information on the following, drawing on research and review literature as recent as April 2002, even as the book was in production: genetic translation in the nucleus (4), signal peptides (4), stem cell research (5), hair analysis (6), osteoporosis treatments (7), knee surgery (9), muscle-connective tissue relationships (11), mitosis in cardiac muscle (11), astrocyte functions (12), surgical treatment of parkinsonism (12), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (13), memory consolidation (14), functional MRI (14), the sensory role of filiform papillae (16), a new class of retinal photoreceptors (16), the history of anesthesia (16), the relationship of growth hormone to somatomedins (17), cytotoxic T cell activation (21), asthma (21), neuroimmunology (21), atrial natriuretic peptide (23), hunger and body weight homeostasis (26), heritability of alcoholism (26), the functions of relaxin (28), contraceptive options (28), the fate of sperm mitochondria (29), Werner syndrome (29), telomeres (29), and theories of aging (29).

Issues of Terminology

In 1999, the Terminologia Anatomica (TA) replaced the Nomina Anatomica as the international standard for anatomical terminology. I have updated the terminology in this edition accordingly, except in cases where TA terminology is, as yet, so unfamiliar that it may be more a hindrance than a help for an introductory anatomy course. For example, I use the unofficial femur rather than the official os femoris or femoral bone.

The TA no longer recognizes eponyms, and I have avoided using them when possible and practical (using tactile disc instead of Merkel disc, for example). I do introduce common eponyms parenthetically when a term is first used. Some eponyms are, of course, unavoidable (Alzheimer disease, Golgi complex) and in some cases it still seems preferable to use the eponyms because of familiarity and correlation with other sources that students will read (for example, Schwann cell rather than neurilemmo-cyte).

I follow the recommendation of the American Medical Association Manual of Style (ninth edition, 1998) to delete the possessive forms of nearly all eponyms. There are people who take offense at the possessive form Down's syndrome and yet may be equally insistent that Alzheimer's disease be in the possessive. The AMA has grappled with such inconsistencies for years, and I accept

Saladin: Anatomy & I Front Matter I Preface I I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Unity of Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition its recommendation that the possessives be dropped whenever possible. I make exception for a few cases such as Broca's area (which would be awkward to pronounce without the 's) and I retain the possessive form for natural laws (Boyle's law).

Pedagogic Changes

Figure 12.9 Ionic Basis of the Resting Membrane Potential.

Note that sodium ions are much more concentrated in the extracellular fluid (ECF) than in the intracellular fluid (ICF), while potassium ions are more concentrated in the ICF. Large anions unable to penetrate the plasma membrane give the cytoplasm a negative rhame '■■" '1 1__

If we suddenly lncreas_ed4>iinrrr'hr int-^MInkr Ml 1:1 |i: ft Ulïï"p7Trr.,

I have made the following changes in pedagogy; see the referenced pages for examples of each:

• Added icons to the histological illustrations in chapter 5 to show a place where each tissue can be found (pp. 162-163).

• Added thought questions to some figure legends (usually five per chapter) and provided answers to these at the end of the chapter (p. 91).

Large anions that cannot ■rfï escape cell

Figure 12.9 Ionic Basis of the Resting Membrane Potential.

Note that sodium ions are much more concentrated in the extracellular fluid (ECF) than in the intracellular fluid (ICF), while potassium ions are more concentrated in the ICF. Large anions unable to penetrate the plasma membrane give the cytoplasm a negative rhame '■■" '1 1__

If we suddenly lncreas_ed4>iinrrr'hr int-^MInkr Ml 1:1 |i: ft Ulïï"p7Trr.,

ICF, would thempj^gjSS ^Jj .:'î|| jji, ■ i i^çf'.. p a J i.l. pçftfeâKJ

than the RMKV '

f piffl'hrfrMB r-ïf «^thpt^ni ^ fmBwWHtJi r^fc-hifin r* h. -.

If wauddwiiy-ric/iu:«: Ihs CTr-aenlfi; k.tij in Iho

ICF- Mould Its; rr.iiDiuro pmanlkJ became hqharar av-.t r

For each organ system, added a table of pathologies which briefly describes several of the most common dysfunctions and cites pages where other dysfunctions of that system are mentioned elsewhere in the book (p. 208).

Changed the chapter reviews from an outline to a narrative format that briefly restates the key points of the chapter (p. 125).

Shortened the end-of-chapter vocabulary lists, which no longer list all boldfaced terms in a chapter, but only those terms that I deemed most important (p. 126). Added 10 true/false questions to each chapter review, with a prompt to explain why the false questions are untrue (p. 127). The answers to these are in appendix B (p. A-2).

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