Natural Ways to Treat Uterine Fibroids
Uterine fibroids are common benign tumours that arise from the uterine myometrium or, less commonly, from the cervix (West, 1998). The prevalence of fibroids is 20 per cent in the Caucasian population and 50 per cent in the Afro-Caribbean and Afro-American population (West, 1998). Fibroids are derived from single myometrial cells, though G - 6 PD type may vary between individual fibroids within the same uterus (West, 1998). It is thought that fibroid growth is dependent on ovarian hormones, as they do not occur prior to menarche and normally reduce in size following menopause. Fibroids appear to develop and be maintained in response to oestrogen, and progesterone may have a major role to play in the control of fibroid growth. Fibroids may be single, but are more commonly multiple and at varying sites and sizes. They are named depending on where they are located within the muscle of the uterus. They include Intramural fibroids within the muscle layer of the uterus. Between 30 and 50...
Menorrhagia is thought to be associated with uterine fibroids, adenomyosis, pelvic infection, endometrial polyps and the presence of a foreign body such as an intrauterine contraceptive device. Lumsden and Norman (1998) state that in women with menstrual blood loss greater than 200 ml, over half will have fibroids, although only 40 per cent of those with adenomyosis actually have menstrual blood loss in excess of 80ml. According to Hurskainen et al., (1999) approximately half of the cases who present with menorrhagia show no underlying pathology. It is thought that vascular changes may play an important role, but the condition remains poorly understood. Hysteroscopic removal of submucous fibroids or polyps.
Uses in Public Health Planning and Evaluation. Cross-sectional studies are very important in public health planning and evaluation. They are widely used in these settings for a variety of purposes. For example, if a public health administrator wants to obtain an idea of how many and what sort of facilities are needed to treat people with a certain disease at a given point in time, knowledge of the prevalence of the disease in the community is important. Often prevalence rates are needed for specific segments of the population or according to the severity of the disease, since different methods of treatment and types of facilities may be needed for people with various stages of the disease. Cross-sectional studies are also used to help set research priorities based on consideration of the burden of the disease. For example, a study of the prevalence of chronic gynecologic conditions among US women of reproductive age found that the most common conditions are menstrual disorders,...
Pregnant women by nature may have intermittent abdominal discomfort from the enlarging gravid uterus, preexisting fibroids, changing bowel habits particularly constipation, bladder compression and gastroesophageal reflux. Other more serious causes of accelerating abdominal pain include cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis, sphincter of oddi dysfunction, intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal abscess, and toxemia of pregnancy.
Leiomyosarcomas in HIV-infected children differ from cases occurring in the general population by EBV detected by in situ hybridization and PCR in nearly all cases.6-8 Jenson and colleagues8 reported several EBV antigens, including latent antigen EBNA-1, expressed from cells cultured from leiomyosarcoma. Human umbilical cord lymphocytes that were transformed with the virus that was isolated from the tumor expressed EBV antigens similar to EBV-transformed lymphocyte cell lines. These results confirmed that EBV may have a contributory role in the oncogenesis of leiomyosarcomas.
Gastric cancer (GC) is an international health problem with an incidence approaching 800,000 people per year. Although uncommon in North America (25,000 cases per year), GC carries a poor prognosis, with more than 12,000 deaths estimated in 2002 (Jemal et al, 2002). This poor outcome is attributed to advanced stage at diagnosis, which precludes a curative resection. However, in the United States patients are being diagnosed at an earlier stage. Gastric adenocarcinoma (AC) is the predominant histology ( 95 ), followed by leiomyosarcoma gastrointestinal stomal tumors, lymphoma, and carcinoid. The incidence of gastroesophageal (GE) junction malignancy has risen steadily over the past decade. The treatment and behavior of this disease differs from true GC and, thus, for the purposes of this chapter, we will focus on the management of primary gastric AC. There are separate chapters on Barrett's esophagus (Chapter 14, Barret's Esophagus ) esophageal cancer (Chapter 22, Palliation of...
EBV has been implicated in a wide variety of diseases in individuals who are immunodeficient, including in the pathogenesis of a variety of malignancies in HIV AIDS setting, such as in PCNSL, BL, Hodgkin's disease, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (NHL), and leiomyosarcoma.5-8 Individuals with AIDS have a significant defect of T-cell immunity to EBV and an elevated number of EBV-infected B cells in the circulation.9 Specific T cells that target EBV-infected B cells are not decreased, but they lose their ability to respond to EBV antigens, including ones involved in virus reactivation and subsequent lymphomagenesis. The exact role of EBV in AIDS lymphomagenesis is unclear but it is hypothesized that chronic antigen exposure to HIV and EBV results in excessive B-cell stimulation, leading to proliferation of antigen-selected B-cell clones.10 Each section on the EBV-related tumors further discusses EBV pathogenesis respective to each individual tumor type.
Retroviruses probably cause most infectious neoplasms of fish. These neoplasms are diverse and include lymphosarcoma or leukaemia, dermal sarcoma, fibroma, leiomyosarcoma, papilloma and neural neoplasms. Viruses causing these diseases are difficult to isolate in cell culture, but transmission of the disease by cell-free inoculum and presence of reverse transcriptase activity provide evidence that retroviruses are the aetiological agents causing certain neoplasms of fish. Virus-like particles, typically C-type particles, have been seen in some lesions thought to be caused by retroviruses, but this evidence must be interpreted cautiously because of the similar appearing neurosecretory granules in some cells (Harada et al., 1990). Retrovirus-like particles were observed in swimbladder leiomyosarcomas of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in cages (Duncan, 1978). The neoplasms consisted of well differentiated, spindle-shaped cells with elongated cytoplasmic processes (McKnight, 1978)....
Uterine sarcoma is a rare tumour, accounting for only 2-6 of gynaecological malignancies. Uterine sarcomas may be broadly divided into three subtypes. The first is the mixed mullerian sarcoma, which occurs most frequently in postmenopausal women. The other two types are endometrial stromal sarcomas and leiomyosarcomas, which usually present in younger women. Mixed mullerian sarcomas tend to be bulky, arising centrally within the uterus, and are frequently associated with necrosis (Figure 6). However, they have no imaging characteristics that aid their differentiation from endometrial carcinoma. Leiomyosarcomas also tend to be bulky tumours indistinguishable from benign fibroids on imaging. Malignancy should be suspected if the tumour shows marked contour irregularity, significant necrosis or evidence of metastatic disease. Leiomyosarcomas also tend to be bulky tumours indistinguishable from benign fibroids on imaging. Malignancy should be suspected if the tumour shows marked contour...
TOA is generally a consequence of salpingitis or PID of acute or chronic nature. Other conditions associated with pelvic abscess formation include endometritis, pyelonephritis, uterine fibroids, and malignancy in the pelvic area. Most pelvic abscesses are polymicrobial with preponderance of anaerobic bacteria, with Bacteroides spp. predominating, followed by peptostreptococci and rarely, clostridia. P. bivia and P. disiens are major pathogens in these infections (51) these pathogens possess virulence characteristics similar to the B. fragilis group (35).
And stretched laterally and the peritoneum incised. The uterus is incised transversely in its thin lower segment. A 'classical' CS involves a midline incision, and the uterus is incised longitudinally in its upper segment. Classical CS is associated with a greater risk of haemorrhage, infection and ileus but is quicker to perform and easier than lower segment CS. It may be indicated if the lower segment is poorly formed (e.g. in premature delivery), or in placenta praevia, transverse unstable lie or uterine fibroids.
It is estimated that infertility is a major presenting factor or secondary feature in 27 per cent of women with fibroids. The most useful diagnostic tool for fibroids is pelvic ultrasound, with a full blood count and an iron study to assess anaemia. Computerised tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also be used to image fibroids, but are thought to be too expensive and show little added benefit over ultrasonography. Submucous fibroids can be found following hysterectomy. MANAGEMENT FOLLOWING FIBROIDS SUSPECTED ON EXAMINATION Table 16 Treatment of fibroids Table 16 Treatment of fibroids
In HIV-infected children, leiomyosarcoma incidence has been accounted at around one case per 5,000 children.6,136,137 Biggar and colleagues135 used an AIDS-cancer registry and found that leiomyosarcomas appear to occur several years after AIDS onset, with three of the four cases occurring 33-76 months after AIDS diagnosis. The relative risk of leiomyosarcoma during the time period 2 5 years after AIDS diagnosis was 1,915 (95 CI, 232-6,915). Granovsky and colleagues,138 in a retrospective analysis of cancer cases from the Children's Cancer Group and National Cancer Institute, found that 11 among 64 children had leiomyosarcomas, representing 17 of all tumors and second behind NHL. Median survival for leiomyosarcoma after diagnosis was 12 months. The monthly death rate after leiomyosarcoma diagnosis increased from 5 in the first 6 months to about 20 thereafter.
The types of neoplasms that develop in medaka after MAM-Ac exposure depend on the age of fish exposed. One-year-old fish primarily develop hepatic neoplasms including hepatocellular carcinomas (trabecular and spindle shaped), cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas (Harada et al., 1988). Medaka exposed to MAM-Ac when only 6-10 days old develop not only hepatic neoplasms but also rhabdomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, nephroblastoma, undifferentiated mesenchymal sarcoma, medulloepithelioma (Hawkins et al., 1988a), leiomyosarcoma and haemagiopericytoma (Fabacher et al., 1991).
The availability of specific monoclonal antibodies, capable of inhibiting VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro (155), made it possible to generate direct evidence for a role of VEGF in tumorigenesis. In a study published by Kim et al. (156), such antibodies were found to exert a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of three human tumor cell lines injected subcutaneously in nude mice SK-LMS-1 leiomyosarcoma, G55 glioblastoma multiforme, and A673 rhabdomyosarcoma. The growth inhibition ranged between 70 and 95 . Subsequently, other tumor cell lines were found to be inhibited in vivo by this treatment (157-159).
First described in 1828 by Chelius,84 breast sarcoma accounts for less than one percent of all breast malignancies,85,86 with an annual incidence in the United States of approximately 17.5 new cases per 1 million women.87 The rarity of this lesion has resulted in reports on breast sarcoma typically addressing a heterogeneous group of tumors, including malignant phyllodes tumors. Mammary sarcomas should be limited to tumors arising from interlobular mesenchymal elements comprising the supporting stroma.3 These tumors include liposar-coma, leiomyosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocy-toma, fibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, primary angiosarcoma, and hemangiopericytoma. Also included in this category, but discussed separately in this review, are postradiotherapy angiosarcomas. Phyllodes tumors, which arise from intralobular and periductal stroma, should be excluded.
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