Pathogenesis

While transmission concerns the spread of viruses in a population, patho-genesis deals with the processes by which viruses infect and cause disease in their target hosts. A virus infection depends on a number of pathogen and host factors as well as environmental factors that affect pathogenesis. The outcomes of the virus infection exhibited in the hosts vary, ranging from inapparent infections to severe infections or acutely lethal diseases. Among the wide spectrum of consequences of the virus infections, latent or persistent infections are the most common and are considered to be a state of balanced pathogenicity where multiplication of viruses is arrested by the host's defense mechanism but the viruses themselves remain in the host for long periods of time without producing a manifesting infection. Viruses in the latent state can be replicated if hosts are put under irregular conditions or other environmental stresses, leading to the outbreak of overt diseases. The asymptomatic virus carriers constitute major sources for the transmission of viruses in a population and have great epidemiological importance.

Elucidation of virus pathogenesis requires investigation of many biological features of the viruses and their respective hosts. While transmission pathways of honey bee viruses have been well studied, not much is known about the pathogenesis of viruses in honey bees. In this section, we focus on the current available information involving pathogenic processes of virus infections in honey bees.

Bee Keeping

Bee Keeping

Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?

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