Animal Models

Spontaneous animal models of ARVC/D found in domestic cats [30,31] and boxer dogs [32] have been described. The combined clinical profile (sudden death, ventricular arrhythmias of suspected RV origin, and syncope) and pathological abnormalities (RV chamber enlargement and aneurysms, RV my-ocyte loss and fatty replacement, myocarditis, and apoptosis) provide compelling evidence for spontaneous heart disease in animals closely resembling the human condition of ARVC/D. The frequent occurrence of myocarditis and apoptosis also in animal models has suggested that both these processes are involved in the pathogenesis of ARVC/D.

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