Disease And Impairment Models In Drug Discovery

An important consideration in the use of cognition models in drug discovery is the baseline performance that will be used to index cognitive enhancement. Clearly, baselines that are at or near the maximum possible level of performance do not provide a sufficient ceiling for observing enhancement, but the selection of a method for adjusting the baseline, i.e., impairing cognitive performance, can have important theoretical and interpretative implications. Cognitive assays with normal animals are...

Cognitive deficits associated

Historically, Parkinson's disease (PD) has been considered to be distinctly a disorder of motor function. While motor dysfunction is clearly demonstrable in PD patients, nonmotor aspects of the disease, while less obvious, are no less real or troublesome. It is now generally recognized that cognitive impairment is a common feature of PD, even in the early stages of the disease 1-4 . Parkinson's disease patients may develop neuropsychological deficits across a range of cognitive functions 5-8 ,...

Learning

Developmental lead exposure was associated with decreased IQ in numerous studies 37 . Deficits in reading, math, spelling, language, and other academic skills were associated with increased childhood lead exposure 38-43 . Deficits in color naming were also associated with increased blood lead concentrations 44 . It is difficult to determine the degree to which poor performance in school is the result of learning deficits as opposed to attentional or other deficits in cognitive or sensory...

Info

A Each test should be separated by 36 to 48 h. a Each test should be separated by 36 to 48 h. lt 5 10 gt 20 Anxious or Normal Sensation FIGURE 12.1 Zero maze for testing anxietylike behaviors. The zero maze is elevated approximately 18 in above the floor, and it consists of two open and two closed areas. Mice are permitted free exploration of the maze for 5 min. Illumination of the maze is critical and should be maintained between 40 to 60 lux. Anxious mice remain in the closed areas and do not...

Modeling Cognitive Deficits Of Parkinsonism With Chronic Administration Of Mptp

Late Cognitive Deficits Parkinsons

Our initial idea was to produce cognitive deficits in monkeys pretrained to perform a variety of cognitive tasks by administering the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP in doses too low to induce gross parkinsonian motor deficits. Since the clinical literature indicated that cognitive deficits are present at the earliest stages of PD, our goal was try to model this early stage of PD in nonhuman primates. Over several years we developed and refined the chronic-low-dose MPTP administration protocol to...

Cognitive Testing

Task selection is perhaps the most crucial decision an investigator can make. However, with the multitude of cognitive paradigms available for mice and the availability of mutant animals, it becomes important for the experimenter to decide a priori which tests are the most suitable for study. As the behavioral phenotype of many mutants may be heterogeneous, it is critical to examine multiple aspects of cognition that cover different domains of functioning, including preattention and attention,...

References

Beal, M.F., Experimental models of Parkinson's disease, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 325-332, 2001. 2. Arendash, G.W., Gordon, M.N., Diamond, D.M., Austin, L.A., Hatcher, J.M., Jantzen, P., Dicarlo, G., Wilcock, D., and Morgan, D., Behavioral assessment of Alzheimer's transgenic mice following long-term A beta vaccination task specificity and correlations between A beta deposition and spatial memory, DNA and Cell Biology, 20, 737-744, 2001. 3. Bard, F., Cannon, C., Barbour, R., Burke,...