World War Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more...

Alive after the Fall Review Summary


4.8 stars out of 34 votes

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Author: Alexander Cain
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My Alive after the Fall Review Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

The World War I Tests

The infant field of adult assessment grew rapidly with the onset of World War I, particularly after U.S. entry into the war in 1917 (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997 Vane & Motta, 1984). Psychologists saw with increasing clarity the applications of intelligence tests for selecting officers and placing enlisted men in different types of service, apart from their generation-old use for identifying the mentally unfit. Under the leadership of Robert Yerkes and the American Psychological Association, the most innovative psychologists of the day helped translate Binet's tests to a group format. Arthur Otis, Terman's student, was instrumental in leading the creative team that developed the Army Alpha, essentially a group-administered Stanford-Binet, and the Army

Introduction to the Assessment of Adolescent and Adult Intelligence

Wechsler's Scales 3 Clinical Relevance of Theory 3 A Short History of IQ Tests 3 The Binet-Simon Scales 4 Terman's Stanford-Binet 4 The World War I Tests 5 Wechsler's Creativity 6 Surveys of Test Usage for Adults 7 Has Test Use Changed over the Years 8 Test Usage of1,500 Psychologists and Neuropsychologists 8 How Frequently Are Tests Used 9

Taming the rockets From wrath to research

During the Second World War this family of ballistic missiles would become universally known, feared and despised as the V-weapons. Ironically, neutered versions of these same rockets would one day carry a host of animals into the heavens on peaceful, science-gathering missions.

Previous Work on Amputation History

Joseph Lister Did

Leon Gillis' Amputations of 1954 reflects the experience of an orthopaedic surgeon attached to the principal limb-fitting centre in Britain, at Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton, where he advised many victims of World War II.30 Gillis commences with definitions and a brief history devoted mainly to developments of saws, knives, artery forceps, tourniquets, anaesthetics, surgical techniques and artificial limbs. His last chapter notes amputations in unusual circumstances, including brief consideration of ritual loss and auto-amputation. Other chapters are devoted to indications, standard and special amputations, and to congenital anomalies and short limbs in children requiring prostheses, to phantom limbs and to after-care. Six chapters consider the problem of painful stumps and their management, a topic which Gillis studied in detail, doubtless due to experience at this special hospital, perhaps the most profitable element of the book. Some reamputated specimens removed by Gillis were...

Setting Priorities and Measuring Progress

Public health leaders began to formulate concrete public health objectives as a basis for action in the years following World War II. This was a clear shift from earlier efforts in that emphasis was placed on quantifiable objectives and explicit time limits (Breslow 1990). A few key examples illustrate the use of epidemiologic data in setting and measuring progress toward health objectives.

In the Twentieth Century

Distal Colostogram

1.2.2 Post World War II Era 1945-1980 Following World War II, things began to change. The availability of antibiotics and improvements in anesthesia had a positive influence on reducing the septic complications associated with bowel surgery. In 1948, Rhoads and colleagues in Philadelphia rekindled interest in a combined AP approach for cases of imperforate anus and high rectal atresia 134 . In 1950, Denis Browne of Great Ormond Street, London, UK, reclassified the defects associated with rectal agenesis using a thesis originally described by Wood-Jones in 1904 and 1915 16, 173, 174 . The term covered anus became popular, and initial colostomy and subsequent AP pull-through through a hole stretched (not cut) in the pelvic floor was advocated for high lesions. Browne also popularized the cutback anoplasty for instances of perineal fistula 16 . In 1953, Douglas Stephens, while working with Denis Browne in London, described the sacroperineal rectoplasty and emphasized the role of the...

Selection of the Subtests

Wechsler selected tasks for the Wechsler-Bellevue from among the numerous tests available in the 1930s, many of which were developed to meet the assessment needs of World War I. Although Wechsler chose not to develop new subtests for his intelligence battery, his selection process incorporated a blend of clinical, practical, and empirical factors. His rationale for each of the well-known subtests is discussed in the sections that follow. The WAIS-III also contains three new subtests that were not part of the earlier Wechsler batteries Letter-Number Sequencing, Symbol Search, and Matrix Reasoning. These subtests are discussed in separate sections.

Cameroon 1938 And 19541973

Despite all these fascinating research activities of Martin Eisentraut, his main field - Africa, and in particular Cameroon - has still to be started with. He got first acquainted with this country in 1938, arriving on a banana steamboat from Hamburg. His aim was to study the physiological problems he had worked on in Central European bats, also in tropical species. On this occasion he became fascinated by Mt. Cameroon and by the altitudinal zonation of the fauna. But his plan to return had to be postponed for years because of World War II. However in 1954, Eisentraut became the first German citizen after the war to receive a special permit by the British mandatory authorities to again visit West Cameroon. In the meantime, he had left Berlin and its Natural History Museum because of the political difficulties in the divided city. The museum was in the eastern sector, his house, however, in West Berlin, and it turned out to be impossible to cover life expenses in West Berlin with an...

Nutritional and Vitamin Deficiency

Tropical populations subsisting on diets deficient in protein and vitamins are prone to leg ulceration, if the limb is injured and infected with bacteria, especially Bacillus fusiformis. In the 18th century, these conditions sometimes affected sailors deprived of a balanced diet and most notably prisoners of war in Japanese camps of the tropical zone during the Second World War. Without a suitable dietary intake, skin injuries of the lower limbs failed to heal and becoming infected, progressed to involve bone and threaten life, often precipitating amputation in rudimentary operating conditions.46

Pioneers of destiny The suborbital dog flights

If you had visited Moscow's Institute of Aviation Medicine (IAM) in the summer of 1950, you might have been surprised to hear the clamour of dogs, to see them trotting about in pressure suits, and being spun in centrifuges. A cluster of small, light-furred dogs had taken up residence in that post-war summer, when the Institute was just beginning to turn its focus from the physiology of airplane to rocket flight. In the years following the Second World War, the major research thrust of the IAM was on the biological problems associated with flight.

Misapplied Tourniquets

Instances of field tourniquets applied to control arterial bleeding on the battlefield and overlooked under dressings or for lack of communication are a known cause of gangrene. During World War I, a guide for medical officers dated July 1915 reminded them of this hazard.38 In 1943, Watson-Jones was of the opinion that more limbs have been lost than saved by using tourniquets he had seen tourniquets applied at pressures low enough

Further nonspecialist treatment

Functional somatic symptoms were common after combat in the first world war, such as this soldier's hysterical pseudohypertrophic muscular spasms. The course and outcome of such symptoms can now be seen to have been substantially determined by varied medical and military approaches to prevention and treatment

The Development Of Family Therapy

The family therapy approach to the treatment of mental health problems was developed during the years that followed the Second World War. Psychotherapists of various mental health disciplines, together with researchers from other disciplines, began to look at their patients' families as possibly contributing to the disorders they were treating. The idea that families might have a part in the genesis of psychiatric disorders was not new. Freud and others from the early days of psychoanalysis had postulated that the early childhood family relationships of their patients had caused the neurosis with which these patients presented. In those early days, however, the response was to separate the patients from their families for treatment. This was accomplished either by seeing patients for treatment on their own while having minimal or no contact with their families or by admitting them to psychiatric hospitals or other institutions where they could be cared for and treated away from the...

The devil and the deep blue sea

Whaling stopped in the First World War, but, ominously, stocks did not recover. In 1926, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea established a Whaling Committee, although whale hunting continued unabated. In 1931, for example, 30,000 blue whales were taken worldwide. In 1937, an International Whaling Conference was called, attended by South Africa, Argentina, Australia, Germany, Irish Free State, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States. As a result, an International Whaling Convention was signed, establishing a sanctuary in the Antarctic Ocean, closing most of the Arctic to pelagic whaling and protecting Antarctic humpback whales for a year. After the Second World War (during which whale meat was sold widely in both the United States and the United Kingdom), the whaling nations met again in London in 1945, and then in December 1946 in Washington. At that meeting an International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling was signed, establishing...

Highaltitude research

A mere 60 years ago, not a single artificial satellite was orbiting the Earth. In fact, the programmes that would eventually put them there had hardly been set in motion. In the post-war years it was known that rockets alone could provide the sustained thrust necessary to loft anything into space, but they were a relatively new and basically unsophisticated technology. In the latter part of the Second World War they had been used as weapons of destruction, and for this reason alone the military was interested in their potential use as ballistic missiles capable of carrying warheads.

History Of Couples Therapy

The identification of couples and families as a system for which psychological intervention is appropriate and even advantageous is a relatively recent phenomenon. In this section, we highlight important movements, historical developments, and influential contributors to the development of couples therapy from the post-World War I era to the present. In the period after World War I, professionals from various disciplines began to promote human sexuality as a legitimate area of scientific study and to call for public education regarding sexual and reproductive issues. Spearheaded by Hirschfield in Germany, Ellis in Great Britain, and Kautsky in Austria, public centers were founded throughout Europe to promote

Exploring the possibilities

Gauer, who had once headed the acceleration laboratory at the Wright Air Development Center, was one of the cadre of captured German scientists brought to the United States at the end of the Second World War. He had theorised that multiple-g acceleration followed by weightlessness might result in profound physiological effects on humans, and specifically that acceleration forces encountered during a rocket launch and re-entry would depress circulatory function. This, he said, could lead to a number of conditions that had been previously observed during experiments in high-altitude aircraft flights, such as blood pooling in the extremities and the brain (known as red-out ) or an insufficient supply of blood to the brain ( blackout ).

Artificial Limbs and Rehabilitation

When Murdoch surveyed amputation literature in 1970, he concluded many more articles, monographs and books had been written on surgical techniques than on prosthetic solutions to limb loss.3 This idea was certainly true before the 20th century, whereas since World War I much has been published on research into and the development of artificial limbs, even if we exclude the many individual limb-makers catalogues. Simply considering books and manuals, principally in English, on the subjects of amputation and artificial limbs since 1918 reveals significant numbers are devoted exclusively to artificial limbs, limb-fitting and amputee rehabilitation, whilst many others combine these topics with operative surgical techniques, often illuminated by contributing authors from many specialities very few address amputation surgery in isolation.4 During the latter half of the 19th century and especially the 20th century, expertise in artificial limb design, fitting and manufacture has advanced...

Development colonization and conservation

Environmentalism is one of the big ideas of the 20th century. It is not as significant as the great political movements of communism or fascism, or the neoliberal notion of the unfettered market, nor does it bear comparison with the ideas of universal suffrage or feminism. But it is important, and wildlife conservation is a significant element within it, one flower on the sprawling bush of environmental concern. The unprecedented upsurge in environmentalism in the last three decades of the 20th century took as its starting point the scale and severity of the impacts of industrial technology on nature pesticides, nuclear waste, oil, pollution, PCBs, acid rain. A whole litany of environmental ills were understood to be direct consequences of industrialization and human greed. The first 'post-scarcity' generation, the children of the post Second World War baby boomers, the generation of rock music, sexual liberation and flower-power was also the generation of environmental concern. And...

Oleg Gazenko becomes involved

Like many of the other scientists working on the dog programme, Gazenko came with a background in aviation medicine. After graduating from the Second Moscow Medical School and the Military Medical Academy, he served as an Air Force doctor during the Second World War. After the war, aviation medical research investigated such areas as problems related to high altitude, the protection of pilots during acceleration, and the development of anti-gravity suits, centrifuges and ejection devices. It was referred to as human factors engineering , and it served as perfect preparation for the biomedical work of flying dogs in rockets.

Unwilling but essential test subjects

Following the end of the Second World War, and in much the same way as these early medical breakthroughs came about, scientists from a variety of disciplines became aware of imminent high-altitude and space flights involving rockets. When this research related to the question offlying humans into space, there were unresolved questions concerning the effects of rocket flight and space travel on the human body -notably acceleration, deceleration, heat, cold, extreme noise, eating and drinking in weightlessness, cosmic radiation and claustrophobia to be evaluated and overcome.

Natures conservationist

The most important reason for an end to wildlife shooting and bush clearance for tsetse control, however, was the availability of an alternative strategy using insecticides. Toxic chemicals had been used broadcast across the African landscape before the Second World War in the 1930s, for example, arsenic dust was sprayed from aeroplanes to kill locusts.90 At that time, experts suggested that impacts on wildlife would be minimal, and the conservationists of the SPFE made no protest, although it turned out (perhaps unsurprisingly) that the impacts were in fact considerable.91 Organochlorine insecticides such as lindane (Gamma-BHC) and DDT became available during the Second World War, and were being used experimentally against tsetse in South Africa in 1948. Large scale control of tsetse with organochlorine pesticides began in the 1950s. BHC smoke and DDT dust, with another organochlorine dieldrin, became stock weapons in the hands of tsetse control departments. By the mid-1980s, some...

Does IQ Decline with Advancing Age A Cross Sectional Approach

Table 5.1 presents mean IQs for various adult age groups on the W-B I, WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS-III. Whereas mean IQs on Wechsler's scales are necessarily set at 100 for each age group, the data in Table 5.1 base the mean IQs on common yardsticks (see note to Table 5.1) to permit age-by-age comparisons. Overall, the striking apparent age-related changes in intelligence from the 20s through old age, especially in P-IQ, are so overwhelming (and depressing, if taken at face value) that it is easy to understand why Wechsler and others concluded that the path to old age is paved by a steady, unrelenting loss of intellectual function. Also intriguing in Table 5.1 is the incredible similarity in the cross-sectional data for the four adult Wechsler batteries that were normed in 1937, 1953, 1978, and 1995. In particular, the mean P-IQs (relative to a common yardstick) for the WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS-III are uncannily similar for each age group between 20-24 and 65-69, never differing by more than...

Electron Microscopy

The next set of discoveries concerning the milk agent was just as provocative. By the late 1940s, the particulate nature of what was increasingly called the Bittner agent had been established by several groups, including the new NCI. The first practical electron microscope was built in 1938 by Burton in Toronto, Canada (Burton et al., 1939, 1940). After World War II, biologists started realizing the potential of magnifications of as great as 2,000,000 x. The logical step was to use the Electron Microscopy (EM) to study the structure of submicroscopic particles. Starting with Porter and Thompson in 1948, investigators reported that abundant particulate entities could be observed in vitro from C3H mammary epithelial tumor cells (Porter and Thompson, 1948). The initial study did not use thin sections.

The national park spirit

Stevenson-Hamilton left South Africa in 1914, and when he returned after the First World War he was depressed by the deterioration in the management of the game reserves.98 However, the various calls for the nationalization of the game reserves were finally heeded by government. The Transvaal Land Owners Association accepted the notion of giving up farms within the reserves for land elsewhere, and at a conference in 1921 the Native Affairs Department agreed new boundaries on the west side of the Sabi Game Reserve. In 1922, Prime Minister Jan Smuts announced his intention to create a National Park and Game Reserve in the next parliamentary session. Stevenson-Hamilton suggested that In the heyday of apartheid, Kruger National Park became an enduring symbol of Afrikaaner nationalism, a place of recreation and spiritual restoration for urban white South Africans, where they could affirm their God-given role as the rightful guardians of a land carved from the wilderness. James...

Nature and parks in the United Kingdom

Demand for access to the countryside had risen steadily since the end of the 19th century, a cultural change equivalent to that described in Chapter 3 when environmental and wildlife organizations began to grow from the 1960s. The Federation of Rambling Clubs, established in 1905, had 40,000 members by 1931. The Youth Hostels Association (YHA) was established in 1930, the Ramblers Association in 1935. The YHA had almost 300 hostels and over 83,000 members by the outbreak of the Second World War.119 However, rural land in Britain was almost all privately owned, and landowners were opposed to the idea of allowing urban workers access to it. In 1894 James Bryce placed a Bill before Parliament to allow the public to walk over mountains and open moorland for recreation, artistic or scientific purposes. It failed, as did repeated attempts to get such a Bill passed in the face of fierce opposition from landowners who feared damage to their grouse shooting (in 1908, and three times in the...

Global nature conservation

Within the United Kingdom, however, the SPFE continued to be influential, and to urge conservation on British colonial planners, although in British colonies themselves their urgings were muffled by the complex concerns of emerging governments, particularly those of indigenous self-government. At home, following the Second World War, they honed their image, and continued to court high society. The King was still their Patron, and in 1946 the SPFE President, the Duke of Devonshire, invited Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret to attend an SPFE meeting to hear the veteran Stevenson-Hamilton speak about Kruger National Park, ahead of their trip to South Africa the following year.54 When King George VI died in 1952, the new Queen agreed to take over as the society's Patron.

The Military Regime and the Hard Years Back Home

Dr Herta Meyer was one of the senior investigators of the Biophysics Institute. She was a German Jew who with the help of Professor Chagas flew to Brazil on the eve of the second world war. Dr Chagas helped several people from France and Italy to escape the Nazis, and after the war received the Legion d'honneur'' from the French government for his deeds. The only electron microscope available in the city was in Dr Herta's laboratory. She kindly allowed any one to use it during a part of the day and there was a waiting list for the use of the equipment. One day, an officer of the Navy came to Dr Herta's laboratory and informed her that he needed to use the microscope. She politely told him that there was a long waiting list. The man loudly announced that he was an officer of the Navy. Dr Meyer was not impressed by the tone of his voice, and looking him up and down coolly answered ''We are all employees of the government'' and that was it. The officer did not expect an answer, went...

Engagement in Cognitive Activities and Maintenance of Intelligence

Years (Gribbin, Schaie, & Parham, 1980). Being involved in a stimulating early work experience has also been associated with IQ maintenance (Willis, 1985), as has coming from high socioeconomic status and remaining fully engaged with their environment (Schaie, 1984). In contrast, the largest declines tend to be shown by older adults (most notably by intelligent females) who have faced family dissolution or personal disengagement (Willis, 1985) widowed women who were never in the workforce and who were disengaged were particularly vulnerable to cognitive decline (Schaie, 1984). Additionally, longitudinal data obtained on World War II veterans tested twice (40-year interval) revealed significant relationships between participation in cognitive activities (and health, and education) and maintenance of intelligence (Arbuckle, Gold, Andres, Schwartzman, & Chaikelson, 1992).

The Origins and the Choice of a Career

Both my parents were Italian, from Naples. My father was a musician (a cellist) and so were my grandfather and greatgrandfather. When I was born in March, 1938, my parents were in Egypt. The second world war started shortly afterwards and my family moved back to Naples when I was just a few months old. My memories of Italy were nice but not very happy. Although my parents did all that was possible to protect the family, the shadow of war was always present and this included the lack of food, the continual menace of bombs, and fear of the

Understanding Leadership

Research into the personal aspects of leadership provides insights into the leadership prospects of different individuals. Yet such a profile says little about what leaders in fact do. In what ways does the behavior of leaders differ from that of followers, and can we arrive at any generalizations about the patterns of conduct of leaders that are most effective Large studies conducted at Ohio State University and Michigan University after World War II shed important light on this aspect of leadership. Personality may be difficult, perhaps even impossible to change, but most of us can change our patterns of conduct to some degree, and thereby lead more effectively.

The Bonanza and the Graduate Courses

Most fruitful initiatives was the creation of graduate courses. MSc and PhD students were granted fellowships that allowed them full-time dedication to their studies. The nuclear project never matured and fortunately we still do not have nuclear weapons, but the surge of science in the country shown in Table 1 is one of the few good results of the military period. When we left for Germany, our salaries were low and the working conditions at the university were very poor. In order to balance our budget at home we used to spend long hours at night translating texts from English to Portuguese. The scenario changed during our sojourn in Heidelberg and after our return we found that the salaries were good and there was money for research, so in a couple of years we were able to equip our laboratories in a manner that we had never before dreamed possible. Up to the sixties, before the institution of the graduate courses, the number of students interested in science was small and the...

Category A B And C Viruses

Until recently, lists of ''threat agents'' were based on data from military biowarfare research carried out by the United States and other countries beginning in the 1930s.5,6 Those programs demonstrated that a number of microbes posed a threat as biological weapons, since they could be produced in large quantity and were stable and highly infectious as small-particle aerosols. Because such analyses assumed that biological warfare would be conducted by organized military forces, risk assessments focused on the potential of various microorganisms for use against troops on the battlefield or for broad-area delivery from the air.

Brooklyn Botanic Garden

I constructed a temperature control box from World War II supplies purchased in New York and studied the influence of temperature on the intrinsic incubation period of the Wound tumor virus in leafhopper vectors (Maramorosch, 1950). After finishing my Ph.D. studies at Columbia, I applied to Dr. Kunkel and was accepted, becoming his last assistant in his Department of Plant Pathology at Rockefeller University. Dr. Kunkel headed the department where earlier, at the Princeton Branch of the Rockefeller Institute, Drs. Wendell M. Stanley, Max A. Lauffer, W. C. Price, Philip R. White, Lindsay M. Black, Francis O. Holmes, and a score of other famous virologists had worked (Corner, 1964).

Gas Gangrene and Related Sepsis

The rarity suggested by Cheyne is supported in 1897 by a military surgeon, Stevenson, whose book Wounds in War omits any mention of gas formation complicating wounds, perhaps reflecting battle experience in terrain (Africa) uncontaminated by anaerobic bacteria.32 On the other hand, Ricard, writing in 1896, claimed that gaseous septicaemia (a term he preferred to gas gangrene) was identified by Hippocrates, Pare and Fabry (Hildanus).33 Following the research of Mal-gaigne, Ricard noted several 19th-century authors mentioning gaseous gangrene, including Salleron, who described 65 cases during the Crimean War.34 However, these examples, mainly unconfirmed bacteriologically, pale into significance compared to the thousands of gunshot wounds contaminated with gas gangrene (see Fig. 2.2b) and other septic organisms seen during World War I. Hull wrote

Developments in the 20th Century

1912 Aluminium Made Prosthetic

World War I proved a turning point in the provision of improved artificial limbs, free of charge, for the vast numbers of young military amputees hoping to return to employment despite mutilating war injuries. Before this war, Little concluded that amputations were comparatively rare operations in Britain, quoting figures at one London hospital in 1913, where of 5483 major operations performed only 34 were amputations. By contrast, as a result of World War I, official British statistics recorded 41,300 surviving military amputees of which 72.5 involved the lower extremity.32 Of these, 24,000 attended Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton, which became a national centre for prosthetic provision and continues in the 21st century smaller centres were established elsewhere in Britain. This vast volume of work finally drew together limb-fitters who cooperated with each other and, more importantly, compelled surgeons to consider the opinions and expertise of limb-fitters and limb-makers to the...

Stump Preparation for a Prosthesis

Stump Crutch

The chaotic experience precipitated by vast numbers of amputees from the battlefields eventually promoted positive preparation of stumps before fitting artificial limbs. Due to delayed healing many military amputees arrived for consideration of prostheses months after injury with weakly controlled stumps and deformities resulting from joint contractures above the amputation site, making prosthetic fitting less than ideal. After World War I experience, Elmslie made a plea for early immediate bandaging and massage to encourage stump shrinkage, and especially active exercises to prevent joint contractures in the lower limb, to produce a strong and efficient stump capable of maximal benefit from a prosthesis bandaging was unnecessary for the upper limb. At the earliest opportunity, often after 3 weeks, walking was instigated in temporary prostheses made from plaster of Paris, cut-down crutch sticks and webbing harness (Fig. 12.6) the plaster cast was changed for stump shrinkage before...

Forequarter Amputation

Resection of the arm with attached scapula and clavicle was first performed by Surgeon Cuming in the Royal Naval Hospital at Antigua in 1808 on a sailor hit in the shoulder by a cannon ball he made a good recovery.100 Velpeau remarked that pull-off injuries of the arm (see Chapter 3) and shoulder disarticulations combined with part of the scapula, followed by healing, may have encouraged such surgery. and by 1840 he was able to report several cases, mainly for malignant disease.101 Surprisingly, Malgaigne and Farabeuf have nothing to say on the subject. Gross reported a few more cases but had no personal experience. In 1900, Bryant considered the operation tedious, attended by great loss of blood and difficulty in obtaining flaps to close the wound in malignant cases for 51 recorded forequarter amputations, he said the mortality was 25 .102 In Little's analysis of 1000 consecutive amputees from World War I, only 1 underwent forequarter resection. Thomas and Haddan commented on its...

World Health Artemesia 2000

During World War II and in the years immediately following, the world wide incidence of malaria was dramatically reduced. On the one hand the Anopheles mosquito vector was successfully controlled by the advent of the insecticide DDT and on the other the organisms causing human malaria - the single celled Plasmodium species falciparum, vivax, malariae and ovale - were effectively controlled by the use of synthetic derivatives of quinine. The specific statistics for India illustrate this dramatic reduction. In 1961 the incidence of malaria had fallen to about 100,000 reported cases, however by 1977 the number of reported cases in India had risen to at least 30 million (Harrison, 1978). The reasons for this dramatic increase were the dual factors of the development of resistance to DDT by the Anopheles mosquito and the development of resistance to quinine and quinine analogues by the Plasmodium. Although the problem of malarial drug resistance in the Plasmodium varies throughout the...

Disarticulation at the Wrist and Forearm Amputation

Wrist Disarticulation

Bility of chilblains in the stump and difficulty in fitting an appropriate prosthesis.82 This contrary opinion hardened during World War I, especially in Britain, due to difficulties in siting an artificial wrist, causing the arm to be longer than its fellow.83 During World War II, similar criticism was voiced noting the impossibility of accommodating forearm rotation in a prosthesis and the stump's vulnerability to chilblains.84 However, by 1986, Vitali et al. were able to report that recent prostheses had overcome these problems and wrist disarticulation was no longer deplored.85 Early forearm amputations were performed, generally, as low as possible, and this approach was still counselled in the 19th century by Gross and Malgaine. However, Petit, somewhat a lone voice in 1783, believed cutting through tendons near the wrist encouraged infection and he preferred cutting muscle bellies in the upper third.86 Bryant, who preferred forearm amputation to wrist disarticulation, does not...

Surgical Stump Management

Approximation Stump

Especially as an emergency on the battlefield or, similarly, to save a trapped victim in a dangerous situation, although today the section is revised surgically. Commonly undertaken for gas gangrene during World War I, the wound was unsu-tured to allow maximal drainage of purulent discharge and gas and to prevent wound tension. Huggins, who had charge of nearly 2000 amputees from the Flanders battlefields at the Pavilion

Decolonization and national parks

When the Second World War was over, the idea of national parks was resurrected, and took root with vigour. By then, the principle of national parks had been accepted in Britain, and at that time too, all things American were the height of fashion. There was a remarkable renaissance of interest in national parks internationally. In Canada there for example, the National Parks Act was passed in 1930, and new parks were created in Nova Scotia (1936), Prince Edward Island (1937), Fundy (1948) and Terra Nova in Newfoundland (1957).171 In Malaysia, E O Shebbeare noted in 1940 the potential to make the King George V National Park in Malaya more accessible to visitors in motor cars (important 'from a box office point of view'), on the model of Kruger, and thus a self-supporting national asset rather than a burden.172 It is interesting to note that by 1945 there were almost 11 million hectares of state reserves in the USSR.173 While conservationists certainly pushed for national parks with...

AN Belozersky Bioenergetics a Department in MSU and a Branch of Biological Sciences

In 1965, I took part in organization of an Interfaculty Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, which later was transformed to the Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, MSU. Professor Andrey Nikolaevich Belozersky, the Head of Department of Plant Biochemistry, MSU and Vice President of the USSR Academy of Science, was the founder of the Laboratory. This great man discovered, in the 1930s, DNA in plants and postulated that DNA is a compound of ubiquitous distribution in living organisms. In the 1950s, together with his brilliant student Alexander Spirin, he predicted the existence of mRNA. In the 1960s, Belozersky decided to perform an experiment on reintroduction of science into universities. Before the Second World War, science was expelled from universities in the USSR to be concentrated exclusively in specialized research institutes. Belozersky understood how bad this was for both science and education and convinced his friend and great mathematician I.G. Petrovsky, the...

Introduction 11 Historical Overview

Penicillin G, the original P-lactam antibiotic, was discovered by Fleming in 1928 and used for the first time in 1941 to treat a staphylococcal infection in a British policeman. By the end of World War II, penicillin was commercially available in the United States 1 . Although initially given as a continuous infusion, due to the abundance of penicillin and the difficulties with the intravenous drip delivery system, long-acting repository forms of penicillin G became popular with clinicians. The pharmacodynamic concepts that apply to P-lactams were actually pioneered in the late 1940s by Harry Eagle, an immunologist at the National Institutes of Health. Calling upon both in vitro and in vivo animal studies, Eagle was the first investigator to propose the concept of time-dependent bactericidal killing for P-lactams. Eagle demonstrated in vivo that a penicillin-free interval prolongs the duration of treatment necessary for cure and that less total daily drug given in frequent, multiple...

Operation save the species

Campaigns to 'save' particular species were an important feature of conservation action on the ground in many instances after the Second World War, and within the fairly specific goals of species-based conservation, a successful one. The language of these various campaigns was characteristically militaristic these were 'operations', 'campaigns' or 'projects'. They had neat titles, and used the language of targets, goals and logistics. In part this reflected

Ankle Disarticulation and Tibiotalar Amputation

The thick skin under the heel was carefully repositioned under the ankle stump and in due course the patient did well, walking long distances, presumably with a high boot (see Fig. 13.10) additionally, it was possible to walk on the naked stump, a considerable advantage about the house. Syme's amputation was performed sporadically, becoming popular in Scotland and Canada but neglected in England on the grounds it was difficult to fit a prosthesis. During World War II, it came back into prominence and in 1956 Harris, in

Surgical Levels and Procedures Ad Hoc Amputations

In World War I, it was the advice of the official memorandum for British Army medical officers treating gas gangrene (see Fig. 2.2) at Casualty Clearing Stations to perform rapid circular amputations through the gangrenous area making use of any fracture to determine the level of section, secure bleeding points, leaving the wound open to drain, in anticipation that the remaining gangrenous tissues would be decompressed and recovery might follow.14 On survival and further evacuation, a formal amputation at a site of election was performed. With respect to the upper limb, it is assumed preservation of all living tissues was practised in recognition that any residual function was a bonus, particularly before artificial arms with dynamic function evolved. Rescue from entrapment preserves as much of the surviving limb as possible, especially when victims are obliged to undertake their own surgery, lacking knowledge of recommended amputation levels.

Frostbite and Immersion or Trench Feet

Dry gangrene of foot and lower shin caused by vascular disease, showing early separation of necrotic tissues. (From Spence J, Lectures on Surgery Edinburgh Black, 1875, vol 1, fig. 12.49) b. Arm amputation for gas gangrene of forearm from missile wound during World War I. (From Hull AJ. Surgery in War. London Churchill, 1918,35 fig. 24.) Despite an absence of frost conditions, continued wetting of the feet in water and mud reduces the skin temperature and if prolonged may promote vessel spasm, rather like wind-chill factor. Although it is claimed the problem of soldier's trench feet can be recognised in Larrey's clinical notes made during the winter campaign in East Prussia, in 1806,15 it was World War I experience that crystallised its menace on a huge scale. Static warfare exposed men to muddy and flooded trenches in the open,for long periods, without changes of wet socks and boots, to compromise their foot circulation. Significant numbers were disabled, reducing...

Hormones And The Emergence Of Endocrinology

During the turbulent years leading up to and following World War II, the major question was whether only ovarian hormones such as progesterone and estrogen were the inducers and controllers of normal breast growth or were there other elements Lyons, in 1958, clearly defined the minimal hormonal growth requirements for normal mammary development in mice as being estrogen, adrenocortical steroids, growth hormone, and cortisol (Lyons, 1958 Lyons et al., 1958). Muhlbock in the Netherlands was particularly interested in the role of the pituitary in mammary gland physiology (Dux and Muhlbock, 1969a,b Muhlbock, 1956). The post-World War II infusion of cancer research funds encouraged the development and rise of mammary gland biology-focused centers located on the campuses of University of California, Berkeley, NCI, NIH, M.D. Anderson, Texas, NKI, and the University of Minnesota. Each of these centers assessed and contributed to transplantation assays, virus detection techniques, and hormonal...

Can We Improve the Gene Pool

The development of the vasectomy in the United States about 1900 provided an important tool for eugenics. The first involuntary sterilization law was enacted in Indiana in 1907, thanks to the lobbying efforts of a prison doctor named Harvey Sharp, who was the first surgeon to use the vasectomy to sterilize convicted felons. California enacted a similar law in 1909 that focused on mentally ill persons living in state institutions. In less than a decade, state officials working in California hospitals sterilized several thousand people, a most impressive number, given the population of the state at that time. However, except for California, the dozen or so states that enacted sterilization laws before World War I did not implement them aggressively. In the early 1920s, in large part in response to a resurgence of European immigration after the war, there was a dramatic growth in public support of eugenic policies. Driven by the lobbying efforts of groups like the American Eugenics...

Femoral Above Knee Amputation

Investigacion Clinica 1920

At low levels in the femur and also for knee disarticulation, Carden described the single long anterior flap which, assisted by gravity, cicatrised away from the bone end to cover the stump with skin accustomed to weight-bearing (Fig. 11.6) of 31 amputations over 10 years there were 10 deaths, a satisfactory result before antiseptic surgery.66 When Lister's antisepsis was correctly applied and, especially, when thermal sterilisation procedures were adopted, the old fears of protracted healing and sepsis diminished dramatically, producing better stumps. Unfortunately, in the muddy trench conditions of World War I, many compound fractures became septic due to severely delayed treatment,12 resulting in poor scars among survivors, many of whom were seen by Little who concluded the ideal amputation had a long anterior flap and a scar behind the bone, although some apparently bad scars were compatible with good locomotion. He found, irrespective of the scar, when adductor and flexor muscles...

Edward Jenner Cowpox And Vaccination

Many Americans must have agreed with Wallace, because in the 1910s epidemiologists were still complaining that the United States was the least vaccinated industrialized nation in the world. Individual states were almost as likely to pass laws prohibiting compulsory vaccination as laws mandating vaccination. Surveys conducted between 1928 and 1931 found that more than 40 percent of U.S. residents had never been vaccinated. Enforcement of vaccination laws improved dramatically after World War II, and the risk of contracting smallpox within the United States eventually became so small that in 1971 the Public Health Service recommended ending routine vaccination. At that point, although the United States had been smallpox-free for over 20 years, six to eight children died each year from vaccination-related complications. Hostility to compulsory vaccination never entirely disappeared. Indeed, in the 1980s, opponents of immunization claimed that the global campaign for the eradication of...

Disarticulation at the Shoulder

Reported a mortality of 25 to 38 for gunshot wounds.98 Removal of the humeral head left an unsightly and often uncomfortable prominence of the acromion, and after World War I experience Elmslie advised saving the humeral head if not damaged this was also the message from World War II. Vitali et al. confirmed the problems of fitting prostheses and recommended part-excision of a prominent acromion.99

Animal Organs to Save Humans

With little knowledge to go on, but faced with desperate patients dying in front of them, in the years after World War II a small group of surgeons began studying organ transplantation, especially kidneys, in animals, often using dogs as their models. The first decade was devoted to grasping the outlines of the problem of tissue incompatibility. Having made modest advances, on a few occasions some research physicians attempted what, in retrospect, were operations as fantastic (and some said as foolish) as those imagined by Wells. In 1964 an American surgeon performed the first xenotransplant (the term refers to any transplantation of an organ from one species to another) when he removed a heart from a chimpanzee and placed it in the chest of a man who was about to die from heart failure. The much smaller chimp heart could not handle the circulatory load and the man died two hours later. In 1968 surgeons in the United States attempted a sheep-to-human heart transplant, and surgeons in...

Spontaneous and Transplanted Tumors 18901911

In retrospect, the scientific community is fortunate that the GR A or the DDD strains had not yet been developed and were not used in these experiments because the tumorigenic MMTV2 is located in the germ line DNA of these strains. Thus, the GR males transmit the factor to their progeny. Consider the confusion if the early investigators had access to GR A or other strains such as DDD. Since the GR strain was primarily developed at the NKI, Korteweg was the most at risk of missing the importance of MMTV in milk. However, the GR strain was not developed until after World War II when the NKI Director Otto Muhlbock obtained the mice from a Swiss investigator (Hilgers and Sluyser, 1981).

Amputation During Warfare

After the battles of the Napoleonic era, Europe experienced a lull for several decades until broken by the Crimean campaign, followed by the Franco-Prussian and other European Wars, and also the American Civil War, culminating in the savage 20th-century disasters of the two World Wars. If battlefields accelerated the number of amputations, this was accompanied by growing numbers of major industrial accidents, rapid transport injuries and rampant joint tuberculosis to test civilian surgeons similarly. World War I introduced trench warfare on an unprecedented scale, precipitating massive artillery bombardments, resulting in 77 of all gunshot wounds being caused by shell frag-ments,58 a complete reversal of the predominance of bullet wounds typical of former wars. Shell fragment wounds were often multiple, causing ragged destruction of soft tissues and underlying bone, as well as retention of the metal fragment or fragments with contaminated in-driven clothing remnants. A further common...

The Global Eradication Of Smallpox

Although humanitarian motives were not absent from the decision to declare a global war against smallpox, there is no doubt that economic factors loomed large in the choice of this target. Global eradication of smallpox cost billions of dollars, but, by eliminating the disease, sponsors of the campaign against smallpox were liberated from the threat of imported cases, without imposing the dangers of vaccination on their own people. For developing nations, malaria and other so-called tropical diseases caused more serious problems than smallpox. Most victims of smallpox die or recover within a matter of weeks, and in

Nursing Management Post Infection Of Ebola Virus

Historical overview of biological warfare. In Textbook of Military Medicine, Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 1997, pp. 415-436. 11. Franz, D. Jahrling, P. B McClain, D. J. Hoover, D. L. Byrne, W. R. Pavlin, J. A. Christopher, G. W. Cieslak, T. J. Friedlander, A. M. Eitzen, E. M. Jr. Clinical recognition and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents. JAMA 1997, 278, 399-411.

A minimum rocket

Acting on behalf of the Ordnance Department of the German Army, Dornberger had been assigned the task of heading a covert investigation into the feasibility of rockets and their potential for military use. At this time, the Army was vitally interested in the development and production of a weapon that did not contravene the many strictures attached to the Treaty of Versailles, and one that could provide Germany with future defence capabilities. Signed at the end of the First World War, this treaty forbade Germany from manufacturing a whole raft of armaments that could potentially be used in warfare, although the army's military analysts had noted that it only precluded solid-fuel rocket research.


Alfred Binet was truly the pioneer of IQ testing. His concepts and approach dominated the field for years, and Terman's adaptation, the Stan-ford-Binet, became the criterion of intelligence in the United States. The nonverbal Performance tests developed during World War I to assess non-English-speaking recruits, low-functioning individuals, and suspected malingerers joined with the verbal-oriented Binet tradition to pave the way for David Wechsler's creative contribution of a dual Verbal and Performance approach to intellectual assessment. Wechsler went on to become a proponent of clinical, not just psychometric, assessment. The need for multiscore measurement that accompanied the learning disabilities movement in the 1960s catapulted the Wechsler series

Defending Education

This was the heyday of education in US medical schools. True to their status as schools, medical schools treated education as their principal mission, to which patient care and research were subordinated. Patient care and research were important, but education was the defining mission. Community hospitals could provide patient care, and biomedical research could be carried out in the basic science departments of universities and by research institutes and private industry, but only medical schools could produce physicians. The primacy of education among the missions of US medical schools lasted at least until World War II. In the two decades that followed World War II, the focus of US medical schools shifted toward research. There was huge growth in the funding of research, and many faculty members began to think of themselves less as teachers of future physicians than as investigators expanding biomedical knowledge. Research became the most prestigious track on which a faculty member...


Based on the main principles of mechanical stapling, (Table 1) Hultl from Budapest, Hungary, developed the first linear stapler in 1909 to close the remnant stomach during gastrectomies. The handling of that instrument was hampered by its weight and bulk. Petz, another Hungarian surgeon, and Friedrich and Neuffer from Germany created lighter and more convenient stapling instruments during the 1920s. Driven by the lack of surgeons after World War II, the Russian government encouraged the development of different mechanical devices for linear and circular stapling to help less well-trained surgeons to safely perform standardized surgical procedures, e.g., gastrectomies and bowel resections.


Delay might mean as soon as shock settled and haemorrhage control was achieved or, alternatively, at some days or even weeks distant when local infection had settled, assuming the patient survived. Unfortunately, the latter methods were often completely impractical when massive numbers of wounded presented, as for example during the major battles of the Napoleonic era, the American Civil War, and especially those wounded by invasive shrapnel and shell fragments which dominated World War I battles and some of those of World War II. Delays were certainly common during these conflicts, often up to a week, as a consequence of physical problems in evacuating the wounded, especially from no-mans-land, to surgical facilities.12 Since World War II more rapid transport systems, particularly the use of helicopters, and basic protective inoculations, antibiotics and modern resuscitation methods combined with arterial reconstruction and skin and bone grafting have saved many limbs formerly...

Cineplastic Revision

To improve the function of upper limb stumps, skin-covered tubes, rings and hooks were constructed to contain exteriorised working muscles and tendons, first by Ceci in 1896, at the direction of Vanghetti, and continued by other Italian and also German surgeons Sauerbruch reported 1500 cases in 1920. In the United States and UK, this form of plastic reconstruction was found less successful and rarely undertaken after World War I.37 An alternative procedure, the Krukenburg conversion, proved more practical, especially for double forearm and blind amputees, involving separation of the radial and ulnar stumps to form active pincers. This technique required mobilisation of the radius to pinch the stable ulna, both covered with skin and moving tendons appropriately.38 Due to the unappealing aesthetic result, it did not prove popular in Westernised societies39 but for poorer societies, without sophisticated hand prostheses, it has proved valuable especially for bilateral amputees whose...

Managing wild nature

Ironically, even pre Second World War proponents of national parks saw 'wild' nature as something that needed management. In 1946, James Stevenson-Hamilton reflecting on his lifetime's experience at Kruger National Park, took what might be thought a rather modern laissez-faire view. He bemoaned the 'high-sounding schemes put forward for the supposed betterment of wildlife, proposing instead the principle that 'it is best to trust nature in all matters pertaining to wild life'.30 On the other hand, while Sir Peter Chalmers-Mitchell told the British Association in 1931 that in national parks, 'no gun should be fired, no animal slaughtered or captured', he went on to note that such sanctuaries needed management by wardens or keepers. He saw them as part of a family of zoological institutions, extending from urban zoos (like his own London Zoo) through a zoological park in country area (like the Zoological Society of London's Whipsnade Zoo). Their wardens needed to intervene in nature...

What causes MS

Population studies have yielded information from which it has been inferred that an environmental factor exists. Persons moving from high-risk to low-risk areas take the risk with them if they move after the age of 15 years. Conversely, if they move before the age of 15 years, they appear to leave the risk behind. This information comes from studies of populations moving from Europe (a high-risk area) to Africa (a low-risk area). Similar observations have been noted in the populations moving into Israel. These findings, as well as the occurrence of an epidemic of MS in the Faeroe Islands after the invasion of those islands by British troupes at the outset of World War II, suggest that an infectious agent is playing a role in MS.

Abderhaldens Fraud

Abderhalden was born in 1877 in Switzerland. He received a medical education at the University of Basel, and in 1902 he went to Berlin to work with the great organic chemist Emil Fischer on the synthesis of peptides and the action of proteases, which are enzymes that break down proteins. In 1908 he became professor of physiology at the Tierarztliche Hochschule in Berlin, and three years later became professor of physiology and physiological chemistry at the Univeristy of Halle. He was due to become director of the Kaiser WilhelmInstitut for physiology in 1914, but the First World War intervened. As a kind of compensation, the Kaiser WilhelmGesellschaft financed his research with substantial grants until 1944.

Family Background

Of these persons, my aunt Vivi Tackholm is probably the most well-known. After having received a BSc degree with botany as main subject, she became a journalist and a writer of children's books. Then she married Gunnar Tackholm, a botanist who became the first head of the Department of Botany at Cairo University. Gunnar and Vivi started the herbarium collection at the university but Gunnar died after a few years. Vivi formally took over the chair when she had received a PhD h.c. for her work on the Egyptian flora. She became a legend in Cairo where she stayed for about 50 years. Vivi lived in Sweden during World War II and in the summers

Viruses As Weapons

Much of what we know about the potential use of microorganisms as biowarfare agents is derived from military research.5,6,11 Such studies began in the United States and other countries during the 1920s, but major testing and production efforts did not commence until World War II. As in the case of the atomic bomb, this effort was driven by the suspicion that enemy states were developing biological weapons and the conclusion that the possession of similar armaments was required to deter their use. In fact, only the Japanese army actually released infectious agents during the war (with little apparent effect), but by its end the United States and Great Britain had established extensive research programs, tested a number of pathogens, and prepared and stockpiled large quantities of Bacillus anthracis. These programs Although military research proved that a number of aerosolized microbes could be employed as weapons, it was eventually realized that their use in war would be severely...

Logistical Factors

Even with sufficient medical arrangements and staff, evacuation might take many days, as proved too often the case during the miserable trench warfare of World War I. Soldiers with open fractures of the femur were marooned in no-mans-land, often for many days, due to enemy fire, as only a stretcher party could extricate them, provided the bearers were not shot in the process. Too often infection and gangrene supervened before the victims reached surgical facilities, the death rate proving severe with or without amputation.40 And although on wooden battleships sailors with gunshot wounds, especially of the lower limbs, were close to surgical assistance, they were reluctant to be put down into a dark airless hold for expectant treatment, conscious their bleeding wounds were liable to be nibbled by rats.41 Many preferred an amputation stump which allowed more mobility than a painful open fracture which, at best, demanded many weeks of dressings confined to a bunk or hammock.

Mopc 315 Mopc460

This was the true measure of this fine man. In 1937, EAK went to Uppsala armed with purified antibodies and showed that they migrated with the gamma globulins see Kabat (1983) for a detailed account . EAK had worked extensively on the antigenicity of dextrans, which were candidates as plasma expanders in World War II. He had also immunized himself with dextrans and followed his own responses over a period of many years. During numerous lunches in NIH cafeterias he told me about his unusual serology, including stories about monoclonal bands, but I never saw first hand any of these electrophoretic patterns. EAK's later work on complementarity regions, that is the parts of the polypeptide chain that interacted with antigen, revealed his great plasticity and insight in immunochemistry.

Broadcast nature

By the end of the Second World War, wildlife film had moved on. Armand Denis filmed Savage Splendour and Below the Sahara, both pandering to audiences' wish for excitement, but concentrating on filming animals in their natural environment. Excitement came from the filming of quasi-scientific attempts to capture animals (lassoing rhinos for example in 1948, over a decade before this technique became part of standard wildlife capture and release techniques), and from filming local people hunting (including the hunting of gorillas in Congo).118 In 1951, the FPS began to build up a library of wildlife films, Walt Disney lending his new 'True Life Adventure' series'.119 These films were loaned not only within the United Kingdom but internationally a letter from Thailand

The problem of ivory

The argument about small ivory was sustained, however, and an international scheme for the protection of elephant and rhinoceros was proposed at a conference held in London just before the outbreak of the First World War. This decided that the export of tusks of less than 10 kilos (approximately 22 pounds) in weight would be prohibited, while at the same time settlers and natives might be protected against the ravages of elephants by the respective powers. In response to these pressures, the Foreign and Colonial Offices began to take steps to establish the International Convention on the Sale of Ivory agreed before the First World War. They started first to try to reconcile the various British Imperial Authorities in Africa the Union Government of South Africa did not wish to be included, claiming that elephants were adequately protected already.30 British colonial governments were no longer as responsive as they had been to the siren call of conservation, and progress was slow. In...

Red for danger

Concern for species formed the centrepiece of the new international conservation movement after the Second World War. Of course, this reflected the long-standing interests of conservationists within the SPFE and outside, but it was American influence that was decisive, particularly the work of Hal Coolidge. In 1930, he had helped found the Boone and Crockett Club's American Committee for International Wildlife Preservation, which had in turn funded a series of studies of endangered species, Glover Allen's Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere in 1942, and a companion volume on the Old World in 1945.19 Coolidge was elected the first Vice-President of the IUPN at Fontainebleau in 1948 (see Chapter 3).20

Dividing the land

It was not easy to see how to keep people and animals apart when African cultivators not only lived in small scattered communities, but practised shifting cultivation. Colonial observers, by and large, deplored shifting cultivation wherever it occurred. This was the considered view of administrators and (when finally appointed, particularly after the Second World War) technical experts on agriculture and pastoralism. In Northeastern Rhodesia, for example, the British South Africa Company banned chitemene (shifting cultivation) in 1906, and although they had to remove the ban three years later in the face of local starvation and poverty, official opposition endured.41 Wildlife conservationists were no exception to this orthodoxy about the feckless and destructive pattern of indigenous African agriculture. T H Henfrey described it as 'a policy fraught with many evils', including the destruction of tribal homogeneity, increased problems of administration and providing medical relief, and...


A field of psychology called cognitive information processing has employed such empirical techniques to provide a number of important insights into the nature and operation of memory. Developed during and after World War II, cognitive information processing was based in large part on the burgeoning field of computer technology. Computers clearly have limitations as a model of human cognition, however, they also shed light on the information processing that goes on in the human mind. How is information input, stored, manipulated, and retrieved A major insight concerned the fact that information passes through multiple stages or registers as it is processed. The mind does not simply absorb and store everything with which it is presented. Some of it passes by unnoticed, and what is retained is highly processed, brought into dynamic rela

Educational Strategy

The word strategy is drawn from a Greek root that refers to leading an army, and a synonym for strategy in this sense would be generalship. In military parlance, strategy is distinguished from tactics. Generally speaking, tactics refers to decision making that takes place once the enemy has been engaged, whereas strategy refers to planning that takes place prior to engagement. During the Second World War, the United States and its allies engaged in strategic bombing of German industries such as petroleum refining and manufacturing, in an effort to undermine the German capacity to wage war. Most battles are decided before the first shot is ever fired.


A few years ago, I wrote to the British Home Office for information about my father's background. They duly sent me the data in their records. My father was born in 1888, in the town of Brzesko, about 50 km east of Krakow. The Krakow area was part of Austria at that time and the Jewish community had been exceptionally well treated there. Since 1867 they had held full Austrian citizenship, which included voting rights and the obligation of military service. My father was in the Austrian army in the first world war and received shrapnel wounds that destroyed

Science Takes Hold

Moses Kunitz Princeton

Receiving the mark of Summa cum Laude. Pehr Edman's thesis work took place during World War II, and for a period he was drafted to serve as a physician in the armed forces. Knowing Pehr Edman's dislike for the military establishment, this was surely a rather dull time for him. However, he got some relief by being offered a horse for transportation between the military units he came to enjoy horse riding. After his dissertation, Pehr Edman applied for a position as docent at the Karolinska Institutet, which was granted. However, Pehr Edman now wanted to widen his experience and perspectives in protein chemistry and therefore applied for, and shortly thereafter received, a Rockefeller fellowship. This was for a one-year stay (1946-1947) at the Rockefeller Institute in Princeton (a division of the Rockefeller Institute in New York), in the laboratory of


In the sense of a positive programme to assist patients recovering from an injury or a major operation, rehabilitation is essentially a 20th-century concept, spurred on by World War I and its vast numbers of disabled who wished to resume employment despite residual physical defects. Before the 19th century little information is available although, as we have remarked, amputee cooks were often engaged on ships, however, as far as is known, without any rehabilitation programme. In 1885, Bigg gave advice on learning to walk with an artificial leg, enumerating actions which might take some weeks to acquire perfectly, using crutches and sticks initially, one assumes under guidance of the limb-fitter. He deplored use of a peg-leg as this introduced a stumping gait which is difficult to correct when a superior artificial leg is supplied.45 In the 19th century, many limb-makers were amputees themselves who were well placed, in the absence of any specialist, to educate new patients....

The Nobel Prizes

In 1998 the Nobel Foundation asked me to be its representative at the Week of Nobel Laureates in Lindau, Germany. After World War II Count Lennart Bernadotte, a relative of the Swedish king, initiated a summer school'' for German graduate students every year in Lindau and invited Nobel laureates to lecture. Lennart Bernadotte lives on the island Mainau in the Boden lake not far from Lindau and the program was actually started to promote the region. The initiative was in the beginning very much criticized by the Nobel Foundation, which did not like the official Nobel character of this course. During the term of Stig Ramel as director, there was a reconciliation and the Nobel Foundation now sends an official representative. The meeting has increased in size during the years and the graduate students now also come from abroad.

Fear of gangrene

Many people find gangrene a frightening word. This may be because people remember hearing about World War I and how many soldiers in the trenches developed gas gangrene which destroyed their legs and often killed them too. In fact, gangrene in the diabetic foot, although a serious problem, will not always lead to loss of the leg. In many cases the damage can be limited to loss of a small area of the skin of the foot, which will heal completely in the end leaving only a scar.

Are You at High Risk

French Anderson

To study schizophrenia), and one of Alzheimer's mentors, to conclude in 1910 that his student had described a unique presenile form of dementia. It was Kraepelin who suggested that this clinical entity should be named in honor of his student, a recommendation powerful enough to ensure that the honor was bestowed. Unfortunately, Dr. Alzheimer developed rheumatic heart disease, and died in 1915 at the age of 51, just as World War I was curtailing most medical research. After the war no one took up the work that he had begun, and two generations slipped away before the disease he characterized again received serious scientific attention. Writing about Alzheimer disease in 1948, R.D. Newton, a British neurologist who was instrumental in stimulating renewed interest in presenile dementia, lamented that in four decades there has been little advance towards a solution of the problem.

Empire preservation

After the First World War, the SPWFE reformed, meeting in February 1919 at the House of Commons under the Chairmanship of their founder, E N Buxton. It dropped the word 'wild' from its title, becoming the Society for the Preservation of the Fauna of the Empire (SPFE), usually referred to as 'the Fauna Society'.18 It established an Executive Committee in 1920, separating the professional work of the society from its general meetings.19 When the Earl of Onslow took over as President in 1926, he presided over larger and more socially illustrious meetings, often with lantern slide lectures, or films.20 The Prince of Wales agreed to become Patron in 1929,21 just before his safari in East Africa.

Bubonic Plague

Bubonic Plague Resistance

Some scientists warned that genomic sequence data could be used to create more deadly forms of pathogens for use as biological weapons, perhaps more readily than genetic information could be used to develop preventive vaccines. Although the strain of Y. pestis that was sequenced was already capable of causing death within 48 hours, experts in biological warfare point out that it might be possible to add genes that would create variants that are resistant to antibiotics and any potential vaccines.

Wechslers Creativity

David Wechsler assembled a test battery in the mid-1930s that comprised subtests developed primarily by Binet and World War I psychologists. His Verbal Scale was essentially a Yerkes point-scale adaptation of Stanford-Binet tasks his Performance Scale, like other similar nonverbal batteries of the 1920s and 1930s (Cornell & Coxe, 1934 Pintner & Patterson, 1925), was a near replica of the tasks and items making up the individually administered Army Performance Scale Examination.

Species in situ

Hobley informed the Museums Association that 14 mountain gorillas had recently been shot for museums, and four caught alive to sell to zoos. He estimated that 50 had been killed since the end of the First World War, and that 'if strict preservation is not instituted they will soon disappear'. This was already by then a public issue he noted that there had been recent debate in The Times.113


It took the impetus of war to advance the technology that finally prepared humankind for the first major assault on the frontier of space. As the Second World War drew inevitably to an end, conquering armies swept in and plundered equipment and personnel from the once-formidable and terrifying German V-2 rocket programme. Having safely landed their valuable charges on American soil, the military quickly despatched dozens of these captured scientists and rocket parts to a remote desert area of the American southwest. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union, working with a more modest share of the V-2 booty and captured German technicians, focused its rocket development efforts on a stark and forbidding outpost named Kapustin Yar, on the empty steppes north of the Caspian Sea.

Modern Uses

Like many drugs , absinthe came to be viewed as a major social problem. By 1910, 20 million litres were being consumed annually, while in Switzerland, absinthe-related crime resulted in its ban in 1907. In the USA, it was banned in 1912, and was finally outlawed in France due to pressure exerted by army generals who were desperate to place blame elsewhere for their lack of success in the First World War. In addition to the problems that can be caused by alcoholic beverages containing wormwood extracts as a flavouring agent, toxic effects can also be seen if wormwood is used for certain medical purposes. If used over a long period, or in large doses, it can become habit forming (Simon et al., 1984), causing restlessness, vomiting, convulsions and even brain damage, all classic signs of narcotic poisoning.

Disease Mapping

The mapping of disease became more common at the turn of the twentieth century. In Britain, the next landmark in its development was between the World Wars, when Stocks18-20 produced the first maps of infectious and non-infectious disease in England and Wales which were standardized for differences in age, sex and urbanization. In 1939 Stocks presented maps using the standardized mortality ratio. Between World War II and the 1960s, the techniques of mapping remained constant, with many of the data being collated, calculated and presented manually. However, the advent of easily operated computers in the late 1960s, with their modern data processing and graphical facilities, allowed the mapping of disease distributions to become almost commonplace. Several atlases of disease have been published worldwide and, excluding those by Howe, four atlases have now been published covering the United Kingdom.21-24

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